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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Müller, Konrad; Lehmann, S; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Gnauk, T; Niedermeier, Nicole; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Herrmann, Hartmut (2010): Particle characterization at the Cape Verde atmospheric observatory during the 2007 RHaMBLe intensive. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10(6), 2709-2721, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-2709-2010
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: The chemical characterization of filter high volume (HV) and Berner impactor (BI) samples PM during RHaMBLe (Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer) 2007 shows that the Cape Verde aerosol particles are mainly composed of sea salt, mineral dust and associated water. Minor components are nss-salts, OC and EC. The influence from the African continent on the aerosol constitution was generally small but air masses which came from south-western Europe crossing the Canary Islands transported dust to the sampling site together with other loadings. The mean mass concentration was determined for PM10 to 17 µg/m**3 from impactor samples and to 24.2 µg/m**3 from HV filter samples. Non sea salt (nss) components of PM were found in the submicron fractions and nitrate in the coarse mode fraction. Bromide was found in all samples with much depleted concentrations in the range 1-8 ng/m**3 compared to fresh sea salt aerosol indicating intense atmospheric halogen chemistry. Loss of bromide by ozone reaction during long sampling time is supposed and resulted totally in 82±12% in coarse mode impactor samples and in filter samples in 88±6% bromide deficits. A chloride deficit was determined to 8% and 1% for the coarse mode particles (3.5-10 µm; 1.2-3.5 µm) and to 21% for filter samples. During 14 May with high mineral dust loads also the maximum of OC (1.71 µg/m**3) and EC (1.25 µg/m**3) was measured. The minimum of TC (0.25 µg/m**3) was detected during the period 25 to 27 May when pure marine air masses arrived. The concentrations of carbonaceous material decrease with increasing particle size from 60% for the ultra fine particles to 2.5% in coarse mode PM. Total iron (dust vs. non-dust: 0.53 vs. 0.06 µg/m**3), calcium (0.22 vs. 0.03 µg/m**3) and potassium (0.33 vs. 0.02 µg/m**3) were found as good indicators for dust periods because of their heavily increased concentration in the 1.2 to 3.5 µm fraction as compared to their concentration during the non-dust periods. For the organic constituents, oxalate (78-151 ng/m**3) and methanesulfonic acid (MSA, 25-100 ng/m**3) are the major compounds identified. A good correlation between nss-sulphate and MSA was found for the majority of days indicating active DMS chemistry and low anthropogenic influences.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 2769 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 114 data points
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-12
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 911 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 7 data points
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sub-micron marine aerosol particles (PM1) were collected over the period 22 June–21 July 2011 during the RV MARIA S. MERIAN cruise MSM 18/3, which travelled from the Cape Verdean island of São Vicente to Gabon, in the process crossing the tropical Atlantic Ocean with its equatorial upwelling regime. According to air mass origin and the chemical composition of the sampled aerosol particles, three main regimes could be established. Aerosol particles in the first part of the cruise were mainly of marine origin (Region I). In the second part of the cruise, marine influences mixed with increasing influence from biomass burning (Region II). In the final part of the cruise, which approached the African mainland, the biomass burning influence became dominant (Region III). Generally, aerosol particles were dominated by sulfate (caverage = 2.0 μg m−3) and ammonium ions (caverage = 0.7 μg m−3), which were well-correlated and increased slightly over the duration of the cruise. High concentrations of water-insoluble organic carbon (WISOC; caverage = 0.4 μg m−3) were found, most likely as a result of the high oceanic productivity in this region. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations increased from 0.26 μg m−3 in Region I to 2.3 μg m−3 in Region III, most likely as a result of biomass burning influences. The major organic aerosol constituents were oxalic acid, methanesulfonic acid (MSA), and aliphatic amines. MSA concentrations were quite constant during the cruise (caverage = 42 ng m−3). Aliphatic amines were most abundant in Region I, with concentrations of ~ 20 ng m−3. Oxalic acid showed the opposite trend, with average concentrations of 12 ng m−3 in Region I and 158 ng m−3 in Region III. The α-dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal and methylglyoxal were detected in the aerosol particles in the low ng m−3 range and were closely correlated with oxalic acid. MSA and aliphatic amines arise from biogenic marine sources, whereas oxalic acid and the α-dicarbonyl compounds were attributed to biomass burning. Concentrations of n-alkanes increased from 0.8 to 4.7 ng m−3 over the duration of the cruise. PAHs and hopanes were abundant only in Region III (caverage of PAHs = 0.13 ng m−3; caverage of hopanes = 0.19 ng m−3). Levoglucosan was identified in several samples obtained in Region III, with caverage = 1.9 ng m−3, which points to (aged) biomass burning influences. The organic compounds quantified in this study could explain 8.3 % of WSOC in Regions I, where aliphatic amines and MSA dominated, 3.7 % of WSOC in Region II and 2.5 % of WSOC in Region III, where oxalic acid dominated.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
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  • 6
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    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Spiegel, Johanna K; Aemisegger, F; Scholl, M; Wienhold, F G; Collett, Tim S; Lee, T; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Mertes, Stephan; Tilgner, A; Herrmann, H; Werner, R A; Buchmann, N; Eugster, Werner (2012): Temporal evolution of stable water isotopologues in cloud droplets in a hill cap cloud in central Europe (HCCT-2010). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12(23), 11679-11694, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-11679-2012
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: Cloud samples for the isotopic analysis were collected in the framework of the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 (HCCT-2010) campaign on Schmücke (50° 39'N/ 10° 46'E, 937 m a.s.l.; Germany) in September and October 2010 with a three-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collector (CASCC) during 13 different cloud events with a temporal resolution of 1 to 3 hours. In a first step, we ensured that no additional fractionation occurred during sampling with the CASCC. The d values of the three sizes classes of the CASCC (4 µm to 16 µm, 16 µm to 22 µm and 〉22 µm) did not differ significantly, revealing that the cloud droplets of different sizes quickly equilibrate their delta value with the one of the surrounding vapor. delta values in the cloud droplets varied from -77 per mil to -15 per mil in d2H and from -12.1 per mil to -3.9 per mil in d18O and were fitted by d2H =7.8*d18O +13*10**-3. delta values decreased with temperature as well as towards the end of the campaign, representing a seasonal trend which is known from d values in precipitation. The deuterium excess of the cloud samples was generally higher than the Local Meteoric Water Line of the closest GNIP (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation) station. Rain decreases its deuterium excess during falling through an unsaturated air column, while the cloud droplets conserve the deuterium excess of the initial evaporation and thus have been found to be a good indicator for the airmass source region: higher deuterium excess was measured for polar air masses and lower deuterium excess for Mediterranean air masses. Changes in d values during one cloud event were up to 3.6 per mil (d2H) and 0.23 per mil (d18O), except for frontal passages, which were associated with increases of ~6 per mil per hour (d2H) and ~0.6 per mil per hour (d18O). Using a box model, we showed that the influence of condensation only was able to explain the variation in the isotope signal of two cloud passages. Consequently, we deduced that the water vapor "feeding" the cloud advected the measured changes. A trajectory analysis and moisture source diagnostic revealed that it is very likely that the variations were either related to rain out along the trajectories or to meteorological changes in the moisture source region. This was the first study using stable water isotopologues in cloud water manifesting their potential in the context of atmospheric water vapor circulation.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 7
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    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; Müller, Konrad; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Poulain, Laurent; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Herrmann, Hartmut (2014): Long-term chemical characterization of tropical and marine aerosols at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) from 2007 to 2011. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14(17), 8883-8904, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-8883-2014
    Publication Date: 2019-10-26
    Description: The first long-term aerosol sampling and chemical characterization results from measurements at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on the island of São Vicente are presented and are discussed with respect to air mass origin and seasonal trends. In total 671 samples were collected using a high-volume PM10 sampler on quartz fiber filters from January 2007 to December 2011. The samples were analyzed for their aerosol chemical composition, including their ionic and organic constituents. Back trajectory analyses showed that the aerosol at CVAO was strongly influenced by emissions from Europe and Africa, with the latter often responsible for high mineral dust loading. Sea salt and mineral dust dominated the aerosol mass and made up in total about 80% of the aerosol mass. The 5-year PM10 mean was 47.1 ± 55.5 µg/m**2, while the mineral dust and sea salt means were 27.9 ± 48.7 and 11.1 ± 5.5 µg/m**2, respectively. Non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate made up 62% of the total sulfate and originated from both long-range transport from Africa or Europe and marine sources. Strong seasonal variation was observed for the aerosol components. While nitrate showed no clear seasonal variation with an annual mean of 1.1 ± 0.6 µg/m**3, the aerosol mass, OC (organic carbon) and EC (elemental carbon), showed strong winter maxima due to strong influence of African air mass inflow. Additionally during summer, elevated concentrations of OM were observed originating from marine emissions. A summer maximum was observed for non-sea-salt sulfate and was connected to periods when air mass inflow was predominantly of marine origin, indicating that marine biogenic emissions were a significant source. Ammonium showed a distinct maximum in spring and coincided with ocean surface water chlorophyll a concentrations. Good correlations were also observed between nss-sulfate and oxalate during the summer and winter seasons, indicating a likely photochemical in-cloud processing of the marine and anthropogenic precursors of these species. High temporal variability was observed in both chloride and bromide depletion, differing significantly within the seasons, air mass history and Saharan dust concentration. Chloride (bromide) depletion varied from 8.8 ± 8.5% (62 ± 42%) in Saharan-dust-dominated air mass to 30 ± 12% (87 ± 11%) in polluted Europe air masses. During summer, bromide depletion often reached 100% in marine as well as in polluted continental samples. In addition to the influence of the aerosol acidic components, photochemistry was one of the main drivers of halogenide depletion during the summer; while during dust events, displacement reaction with nitric acid was found to be the dominant mechanism. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis identified three major aerosol sources: sea salt, aged sea salt and long-range transport. The ionic budget was dominated by the first two of these factors, while the long-range transport factor could only account for about 14% of the total observed ionic mass.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 12003 data points
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: van Pinxteren, Manuela; Fiedler, Björn; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Körtzinger, Arne; Herrmann, Hartmut (2015): Chemical characterization of sub-micrometer aerosol particles in the tropical Atlantic Ocean: marine and biomass burning influences. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 72(2), 105-125, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10874-015-9307-3
    Publication Date: 2019-12-04
    Description: Sub-micron marine aerosol particles (PM1) were collected during the MERIAN cruise MSM 18/3 between 22 June 2011 and 21 July 2011 from the Cape Verde island Sao Vicente to Gabun crossing the tropical Atlantic Ocean and passing equatorial upwelling areas. According to air mass origin and chemical composition of the aerosol particles, three main regimes could be established. Aerosol particles in the first part of the cruise were mainly of marine origin, in the second part was marine and slightly biomass burning influenced (increasing tendency) and in the in last part of the cruise, approaching the African mainland, biomass burning influences became dominant. Generally aerosols were dominated by sulfate (caverage = 1.99 µg/m**3) and ammonium ions (caverage = 0.72 µg/m**3) that are well correlated and slightly increasing along the cruise. High concentrations of water insoluble organic carbon (WISOC) averaging 0.51 µg/m**3 were found probably attributed to the high oceanic productivity in this region. Water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was strongly increasing along the cruise from concentrations of 0.26 µg/m**3 in the mainly marine influenced part to concentrations up to 3.3 µg/m**3 that are probably caused by biomass burning influences. Major organic constituents were oxalic acid, methansulfonic acid (MSA) and aliphatic amines. MSA concentrations were quite constant along the cruise (caverage = 43 ng/m**3). While aliphatic amines were more abundant in the first mainly marine influenced part with concentrations of about 20 ng/m**3, oxalic acid showed the opposite pattern with average concentrations of 12 ng/m**3 in the marine and 158 ng/m**3 in the biomass burning influenced part. The alpha dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal and methylglyoxal were detected in the aerosol particles in the low ng/m**3 range and followed oxalic acid closely. MSA and aliphatic amines accounted for biogenic marine (secondary) aerosol constituents whereas oxalic acid and the alpha dicarbonyl compounds were believed to result mainly from biomass burning. N-alkane concentrations increased along the cruise from 0.81 to 4.66 ng/m**3, PAHs and hopanes were abundant in the last part of the cruise (caverage of PAHs = 0.13 ng/m**3, caverage of hopanes = 0.19 ng/m**3). Levoglucosan was identified in several samples of the last part of the cruise in concentrations around 2 ng/m**3, pointing to (aged) biomass burning influences. The investigated organic compounds could explain 9.5% of WSOC in the mainly marine influenced part (dominating compounds: aliphatic amines and MSA) and 2.7% of WSOC in the biomass burning influenced part (dominating compound: oxalic acid) of the cruise.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 968 data points
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-16
    Description: A method is presented to quantify the low-molecular-weight organic acids such as formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, pyruvic, glycolic, oxalic, malonic, succinic, malic, glutaric, and methanesulfonic acid in the atmospheric gas and particle phases, based on a combination of the Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in ambient Air (MARGA) and an additional ion chromatography (Compact IC) instrument. Therefore, every second hourly integrated MARGA gas and particle samples were collected and analyzed by the Compact IC, resulting in 12 values per day for each phase. A proper separation of the organic target acids was initially tackled by a laboratory IC optimization study, testing different separation columns, eluent compositions and eluent flow rates for both isocratic and gradient elution. Satisfactory resolution of all compounds was achieved using a gradient system with two coupled anion-exchange separation columns. Online pre-concentration with an enrichment factor of approximately 400 was achieved by solid-phase extraction consisting of a methacrylate-polymer-based sorbent with quaternary ammonium groups. The limits of detection of the method range between 0.5ngm−3 for malonate and 17.4ngm−3 for glutarate. Precisions are below 1.0%, except for glycolate (2.9%) and succinate (1.0%). Comparisons of inorganic anions measured at the TROPOS research site in Melpitz, Germany, by the original MARGA and the additional Compact IC are in agreement with each other (R2=0.95–0.99). Organic acid concentrations from May 2017 as an example period are presented. Monocarboxylic acids were dominant in the gas phase with mean concentrations of 306ngm−3 for acetic acid, followed by formic (199ngm−3), propionic (83ngm−3), pyruvic (76ngm−3), butyric (34ngm−3) and glycolic acid (32ngm−3). Particulate glycolate, oxalate and methanesulfonate were quantified with mean concentrations of 26, 31 and 30ngm−3, respectively. Elevated concentrations of gas-phase formic acid and particulate oxalate in the late afternoon indicate photochemical formation as a source.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-09-27
    Description: Concurrent in-situ analyses of interstitial aerosol and cloud droplet residues have been conducted at the Schmücke mountain site during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia campaign in central Germany in September and October 2010. Cloud droplets were sampled from warm clouds (temperatures between −3 and +16 °C) by a counterflow virtual impactor and the submicron-sized residues were analyzed by a C-ToF-AMS, while the interstitial aerosol composition was measured by an HR-ToF-AMS. During cloud-free periods the submicron out-of-cloud aerosol was analyzed using both instruments, allowing for intercomparison between the two instruments. Further instrumentation included black carbon measurements and optical particle counters for the aerosol particles as well as optical sizing instrumentation for the cloud droplets. The results show that under cloud conditions on average 85 % of the submicron aerosol mass partitioned into the cloud liquid phase. Scavenging efficiencies of nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, and organics ranged between 60 and 100 %, with nitrate having in general the highest values. For black carbon, the scavenging efficiency was markedly lower (about 24 %). The nitrate and ammonium mass fractions were found to be markedly enhanced in cloud residues, indicating uptake of gaseous nitric acid and ammonia into the aqueous phase. This effect was found to be temperature dependent: At lower temperatures the nitrate and ammonium mass fractions in the residues were higher. Also, the oxidation state of the organic matter in cloud residues was found to be temperature dependent: The O:C ratio was lower at higher temperatures. A possible explanation for this observation is a more effective uptake and/or higher concentrations of low-oxidized water soluble volatile organic compounds, possibly of biogenic origin, at higher temperatures. Organic nitrates were observed in cloud residuals as well as in the out-of-cloud aerosol, but no indication of a preferred partitioning of organic nitrates into the aqueous phase or into the gas phase was detected. Assuming the uptake of nitric acid and ammonia in cloud droplets to be reversible, it will lead to a redistribution of nitrate and ammonium among the aerosol particles, leading to more uniform, internally mixed particles after several cloud passages.
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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