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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-11-29
    Description: Large freshwater anomalies clearly exist in the Arctic Ocean. For example, liquid freshwater has accumulated in the Beaufort Gyre in the decade of the 2000s compared to 1980-2000, with an extra ≈ 5000 km3 — about 25% — being stored. The sources of freshwater to the Arctic from precipitation and runoff have increased between these periods (most of the evidence comes from models). Despite flux increases from 2001 to 2011, it is uncertain if the marine freshwater source through Bering Strait for the 2000s has changed, as observations in the 1980s and 1990s are incomplete. The marine freshwater fluxes draining the Arctic through Fram and Davis straits are also insignificantly different. In this way, the balance of sources and sinks of freshwater to the Arctic, Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), and Baffin Bay shifted to about 1200 ± 730 km3 yr− 1 freshening the region, on average, during the 2000s. The observed accumulation of liquid freshwater is consistent with this increased supply and the loss of freshwater from sea ice. Coupled climate models project continued freshening of the Arctic during the 21st century, with a total gain of about 50,000 km3 for the Arctic, CAA, and Baffin Bay (an increase of about 50%) by 2100. Understanding of the mechanisms controlling freshwater emphasizes the importance of Arctic surface winds, in addition to the sources of freshwater. The wind can modify the storage, release, and pathways of freshwater on timescales of O(1-10) months. Discharges of excess freshwater through Fram or Davis straits appear possible, triggered by changes in the wind, but are hard to predict. Continued measurement of the fluxes and storage of freshwater is needed to observe changes such as these.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-02
    Description: Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier (79NG) is the largest of three marine-terminating outlet glaciers draining the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream. To understand how Atlantic waters supply waters in the cavity beneath the floating 79NG, we analyze historic and recent bathymetric, hydrographic, and velocity observations obtained on the Northeast Greenland continental shelf. The bathymetry is characterized by a trough system, consisting of the Westwind Trough and the Norske Trough in the northern and southern part of the continental shelf, respectively. Atlantic waters recirculating in Fram Strait cross the shelf break and enter the trough system at its southeastern inlet toward the inner shelf. Warm Atlantic Intermediate Water (AIW) present below 200 m in the Norske Trough shows large contributions of the recirculating Atlantic water. We found that the bathymetry is sufficiently deep to provide a direct subsurface pathway for warm AIW between the shelf break and the 79NG cavity via the Norske Trough. Likewise, based on the hydrographic data, we show that the Norske Trough supplies AIW warmer than 1°C to the 79NG, which is not present in the Westwind Trough. Our moored and lowered velocity measurements indicate that a boundary current carries warm AIW along the northeastern slope of Norske Trough toward the 79NG. We suggest that anomalies in Atlantic water temperatures in Fram Strait could reach 79NG within less than 1.5 years, thereby modifying the glacier's basal melt rates.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-10-24
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 98 (2017): 737-752, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0057.1.
    Description: For decades oceanographers have understood the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) to be primarily driven by changes in the production of deep-water formation in the subpolar and subarctic North Atlantic. Indeed, current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections of an AMOC slowdown in the twenty-first century based on climate models are attributed to the inhibition of deep convection in the North Atlantic. However, observational evidence for this linkage has been elusive: there has been no clear demonstration of AMOC variability in response to changes in deep-water formation. The motivation for understanding this linkage is compelling, since the overturning circulation has been shown to sequester heat and anthropogenic carbon in the deep ocean. Furthermore, AMOC variability is expected to impact this sequestration as well as have consequences for regional and global climates through its effect on the poleward transport of warm water. Motivated by the need for a mechanistic understanding of the AMOC, an international community has assembled an observing system, Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP), to provide a continuous record of the transbasin fluxes of heat, mass, and freshwater, and to link that record to convective activity and water mass transformation at high latitudes. OSNAP, in conjunction with the Rapid Climate Change–Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heatflux Array (RAPID–MOCHA) at 26°N and other observational elements, will provide a comprehensive measure of the three-dimensional AMOC and an understanding of what drives its variability. The OSNAP observing system was fully deployed in the summer of 2014, and the first OSNAP data products are expected in the fall of 2017.
    Description: The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF; OCE-1259102, OCE-1259103, OCE-1259618, OCE-1258823, OCE-1259210, OCE-1259398, OCE-0136215, and OCE-1005697); the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the WHOI Ocean and Climate Change Institute (OCCI), the WHOI Independent Research and Development (IRD) Program, and the WHOI Postdoctoral Scholar Program; the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council (NERC; NE/K010875/1, NE/K010700/1, R8-H12-85, FASTNEt NE/I030224/1, NE/K010972/1, NE/K012932/1, and NE/M018024/1); the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (NACLIM project, 308299 and 610055); the German Federal Ministry and Education German Research RACE Program; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC; RGPIN 227438-09, RGPIN 04357, and RG-PCC 433898); Fisheries and Oceans Canada; the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC; 41521091, U1406401); the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China; the French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER); the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS); the French National Institute for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU); the French national program LEFE; and the French Oceanographic Fleet (TGIR FOF).
    Description: 2017-10-24
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-30
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 122 (2017): 93-109, doi:10.1002/2016JC012106.
    Description: Liquid freshwater transports of the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC) and the separated EGC are determined from mooring records from the Kögur section north of Denmark Strait between August 2011 and July 2012. The 11 month mean freshwater transport (FWT), relative to a salinity of 34.8, was 65 ± 11 mSv to the south. Approximately 70% of this was associated with the shelfbreak EGC and the remaining 30% with the separated EGC. Very large southward FWT ranging from 160 mSv to 120 mSv was observed from September to mid-October 2011 and was foremost due to anomalously low upper-layer salinities. The FWT may, however, be underestimated by approximately 5 mSv due to sampling biases in the upper ocean. The FWT on the Greenland shelf was estimated using additional inshore moorings deployed from 2012 to 2014. While the annual mean ranged from nearly zero during the first year to 18 mSv to the south during the second year, synoptically the FWT on the shelf can be significant. Furthermore, an anomalous event in autumn 2011 caused the shelfbreak EGC to reverse, leading to a large reduction in FWT. This reversed circulation was due to the passage of a large, 100 km wide anticyclone originating upstream from the shelfbreak. The late summer FWT of −131 mSv is 150% larger than earlier estimates based on sections in the late-1990s and early-2000s. This increase is likely the result of enhanced freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean to the Nordic Seas during the early 2010s.
    Description: European Union Seventh Framework Programme Grant Numbers: (FP7 2007–2013), 308299; US National Science Foundation Grant Number: OCE-0959381
    Description: 2017-07-10
    Keywords: Freshwater ; East Greenland Current ; Mooring observations ; Time series
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-08-30
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 42 (2015): 2326–2332, doi:10.1002/2014GL062759.
    Description: Results from three hydrographic surveys across the East Greenland Current between 2011 and 2013 are presented with focus on the freshwater sources. End-member analysis using salinity, δ18O, and nutrient data shows that while meteoric water dominated the freshwater content, a significant amount of Pacific freshwater was present near Denmark Strait with a maximum in August 2013. While in 2011 and 2012 the net sea ice melt was dominated by brine, in 2013 it became close to zero. The amount of Pacific freshwater observed near Denmark Strait in 2013 is as large as the previous maximum in 1998. This, together with the decrease in meteoric water and brine, suggests a larger contribution from the Canadian Basin. We hypothesize that the increase of Pacific freshwater is the result of enhanced flux through Bering Strait and a shorter pathway of Pacific water through the interior Arctic to Fram Strait.
    Description: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7 2007–2013) under grant agreement 308299, NACLIM Project, and from the U.S. National Science Foundation under grant OCE-085041.
    Description: 2015-10-01
    Keywords: East Greenland Current ; Freshwater ; Pacific Water ; Sea-ice melt ; Nordic Seas
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-30
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This is the author's version of the work and is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 112 (2016): 94-112, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2016.02.007.
    Description: We present the first results from a densely instrumented mooring array upstream of the Denmark Strait sill, extending from the Iceland shelfbreak to the Greenland shelf. The array was deployed from September 2011 to July 2012, and captured the vast majority of overflow water denser than 27.8 kgm-3 approaching the sill. The mean transport of overflow water over the length of the deployment was 3.54 ± 0.16 Sv. Of this, 0.58 Sv originated from below sill depth, revealing that aspiration takes place in Denmark Strait. We confirm the presence of two main sources of overflow water: one approaching the sill in the East Greenland Current and the other via the North Icelandic Jet. Using an objective technique based on the hydrographic properties of the water, the transports of these two sources are found to be 2.54 ± 0.17 Sv and 1.00 ± 0.17 Sv, respectively. We further partition the East Greenland Current source into that carried by the shelfbreak jet (1.50 ± 0.16 Sv) versus that transported by a separated branch of the current on the Iceland slope (1.04 ± 0.15 Sv). Over the course of the year the total overflow transport is more consistent than the transport in either branch; compensation takes place among the pathways that maintains a stable total overflow transport. This is especially true for the two East Greenland Current branches whose transports vary out of phase with each other on weekly and longer time scales. We argue that wind forcing plays a role in this partitioning.
    Description: The mooring and analysis work was supported by NSF OCE research grants OCE-0959381 and OCE-1433958, by the European Union 7th Framework Programme (FP7 2007-2013) under grant agreement n. 308299 NACLIM, and and by the Research Council of Norway through the Fram Centre Flaggship project 6606-299.
    Description: 2017-03-24
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 7
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Tsubouchi, Takamasa; Bacon, Sheldon; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Hansen, Edmond H; de Steur, Laura; Curry, Beth; Lee, Craig M (2018): The Arctic Ocean seasonal cycles of heat and freshwater fluxes: observation-based inverse estimates. Journal of Physical Oceanography, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-17-0239.1
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper presents the first estimate of the seasonal cycle of ocean and sea ice heat and freshwater (FW) fluxes around the Arctic Ocean boundary. The ocean transports are estimated primarily using 138 moored instruments deployed in September 2005 – August 2006 across the four main Arctic gateways: Davis, Fram and Bering Straits, and the Barents Sea Opening (BSO). Sea ice transports are estimated from a sea ice assimilation product. Monthly velocity fields are calculated with a box inverse model that enforces mass and salt conservation. The volume transports in the four gateways in the period (annual mean ± 1 standard deviation) are -2.1±0.7 Sv in Davis Strait, -1.1±1.2 Sv in Fram Strait, 2.3±1.2 Sv in BSO and 0.7±0.7 Sv Bering Strait (1 Sv = 10^{6} m^ {3} s^{-1}). The resulting ocean and sea ice heat and FW fluxes are 175±48 TW and 204±85 mSv, respectively. These boundary fluxes accurately represent the annual means of the relevant surface fluxes. The ocean heat transport variability derives from velocity variability in the Atlantic Water layer and temperature variability in the upper part of the water column. The ocean FW transport variability is dominated by Bering Strait velocity variability. The net water mass transformation in the Arctic entails a freshening and cooling of inflowing waters by 0.62±0.23 in salinity and 3.74±0.76°C in temperature, respectively, and a reduction in density by 0.23±0.20 kg m^{-3}. The boundary heat and FW fluxes provide a benchmark data set for the validation of numerical models and atmospheric re-analysis products.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 102.0 MBytes
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  • 8
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1114012 data points
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  • 9
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    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1295784 data points
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This dataset provides 68 months time series of the Arctic ocean heat and FW transports from October 2004 to May 2010. They are estimated based on large amount of mooring data (around 1,000 moored instrument records) in the Arctic main gateways (Davis Strait, Fram Strait, Barents Sea Opening and Bering Strait) using box inverse model method as described in Tsubouchi et al. (2018). Thus, this dataset quantifies inter-annual variability of ocean volume, heat and FW transports. In the heat transport, we find maxima (169 TW) in 2004-2005 and minima (136 TW) in 2007-2008. The size of inter-annual variabilities accounts to 11% in total ocean transport. In the FW transport, we find maxima (127 mSv) in 2005-2006 and minima (67 mSv) in 2007-2008. The size of inter-annual variability accounts to 30% in total ocean FW transport. The quantified ocean transports and associated water mass transformation served as a bench mark dataset to validate various general ocean circulation models.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 418 data points
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