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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Solar physics 54 (1977), S. 457-504 
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A statistical analysis of solar particle events, observed by the GSFC-UNH charged particle detector on board Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 from March 1972 to December 1974 (from 1 to 5 AU for each spacecraft), is carried out with the goal of experimentally determining the statistical average interplanetary propagation conditions from 3 to 30 MeV. A numerical propagation model is developed that includes diffusion with a diffusion coefficient of the form k r =k o r β , convection, adiabatic deceleration, and a variable coronal injection profile. The statistical analysis is carried out by individually analyzing each of five parameters (t max, ξ(tmax), Δt 5, τ) that are uniquely defined in a solar particle event. Each of the five parameter data sets were analyzed in terms of both a spacecraft-solar flare connection longitude ≤50°, and a numerical model that employed a variable exponential decaying coronal injection profile. The five individual parameter analyses are combined with the results that the statistical average radial interplanetary diffusion coefficient from 1 to 5 AU is given by 〈k r〉 = (1.2 ± 0.4) × 1021 cm2 s-1 with 〈β〉 = 0.0± 0.3 for 3.4 to 5.2 MeV protons and 〈k r〉 = (2.6 ± 0.6) × 1021 cm2 s-1 with (β) = 0.0± 0.3 for 24 to 30 MeV protons. Using the classical relationship for the radial scattering mean free path λr, i.e. k r = υλr/3, we obtain 〈λr〉 = 0.09 ± 0.03 AU and 0.075 ± 0.020 AU for the low and high energy data, respectively. These results show, from 1 to 5 AU and from 3 to 30 MeV, that 〈λr〉 is both independent of radial distance and approximately independent of rigidity (for 〈λr〉~P α, where P = rigidity, α = -0.15 ± 0.20). The above diffusion coefficients are inconsistent With both the predictions of the diffusion coefficient from present theoretical transport models and with the diffusion coefficient used in modulation studies at low energies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Examination of many individual event periods in the ISEE 3 deep-tail data set has suggested that magnetospheric substorms produce a characteristic pattern of effects in the distant magnetotail. During the growth, or tail-energy-storage phase of substorms, the magnetotail appears to grow diametrically in size, often by many earth radii. Subsequently, after the substorm expansive phase onset at earth, the distant tail undergoes a sequence of plasma, field, and energetic-particle variations as large-scale plasmoids move rapidly down the tail following their disconnection from the near-earth plasma sheet. ISEE 3 data are appropriate for the study of these effects since the spacecraft remained fixed within the nominal tail location for long periods. Using newly available auroral electrojet indices (AE and AL) and Geo particle data to time substorm onsets at earth, superposed epoch analyses of ISEE 3 and near-earth data prior to, and following, substorm expansive phase onsets have been performed. These analyses quantify and extend substantially the understanding of the deep-tail pattern of response to global substorm-induced dynamical effects.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A detailed observational treatment of bidirectional electrons (50 approx. 500 eV) in the distant magnetotail (or greater than or equal to 100 R sub E) is presented. It is found that electrons in this energy range commonly exhibit strong, field aligned anisotropies in the tail lobes. Because of large tail motions, the ISEE-3 data provide extensive sampling of both the north and south lobes in rapid succession, demonstrating directly the strong asymetries that exist between the north and south lobes at any one time. The bidirectional fluxes are found to occur predominantly in the lobe directy connected to the sunward IMF in the open magnetosphere model (north lobe for away sectors and south lobe for toward sectors). Electron anisotropy and magnetic field data are presented which show the transition from unidirectional (sheath) electron populations to bidirectional (lobe) populations. Taken together, the present evidence suggests that the bidirectional electrons that we observe in the distant tail are closely related to the Polar rain electrons observed previously at lower altitudes. Furthermore, these data provide strong evidence that the distant tail is comprised largely of open magnetic field lines in contra distinction to some recently advanced models.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: ISEE-3 Geotail observations are used to investigate the relationship between the interplanetary magnetic field, substorm activity, and the distant magnetotail. Magnetic field and plasma observations are used to present evidence for the existence of a quasi-permanent, curved reconnection neutral line in the distant tail. The distance to the neutral line varies from absolute value of X = 120 to 140 R/sub e near the center of the tail to beyond absolute value of X = 200 R/sub e at the flanks. Downstream of the neutral line the plasma sheet magnetic field is shown to be negative and directly proportional to negative B/sub z in the solar wind as observed by IMP-8. V/sub x in the distant plasma sheet is also found to be proportional to IMF B/sub z with southward IMF producing the highest anti-solar flow velocities. A global dayside reconnection efficiency of 20 + or - 5 percent is derived from the ISEE-3/IMP-8 magnetic field comparisons. Substorm activity, as measured by the AL index, produces enhanced negative B/sub z and tailward V/sub x in the distant plasma sheet in agreement with the basic predictions of the reconnection-based models of substorms. The rate of magnetic flux transfer out of the tail as a function of AL is found to be consistent with previous near-earth studies. Similarly, the mass and energy fluxes carried by plasma sheet flow down the tail are consistent with theoretical mass and energy budgets for an open magnetosphere. In summary, the ISEE-3 Geotail observations appear to provide good support for reconnection models of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling and substorm energy rates.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Recent gains in understanding the relationship between shocks and storm sudden commencements (SSCs) are reviewed with emphasis on spacecraft observations in general and ISEE-3 observations in particular. The topics discussed include the relation of SSC amplitude to increase in solar wind pressure, the inference of shock properties from SSC amplitudes, SSCs as representative of the transient response of the magnetosphere to a step function input, and magnetic storms accompanying shocks.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Burst-like enhancements of energetic ions were observed by the EPAS instrument on the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) during its closest approach to (28 x 10 to the 6th km upstream of) Comet P/Halley, in late March 1986. The ion intensity was modulated by the varying solar wind speed (the latter reaching maxima of around 600 km/s), as was found to be the case for heavy cometary ions accelerated by pick-up in the solar wind flow, during the ICE encounter with Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner (G-Z). Therefore it is concluded that the observed pick-up ions (most probably greater than or equal to 65 keV oxygen ions) are produced by heavy neutrals from Comet Halley. The observations of energetic ions at such large distances suggest the presence, in the neutral atmosphere surrounding the nucleus, of a component with an ionization scale length of 5-10 million km, resulting from a relatively high expansion speed of a few km/s and/or an ionization time scale of a few times 10 to the 6ths.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 13; 861-864
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A detailed observational treatment of bidirectional electrons (about 50 to 500 eV) in the distant magnetotail (r not below 100 earth radii) is presented. It is found that electrons in this energy range commonly exhibit strong, field-aligned anisotropies in the tail lobes. Because of large tail motions, the ISEE 3 data provide extensive sampling of both the north and south lobes in rapid succession. These data directly demonstrate the strong asymmetries that exist between the north and south lobes at any one time. The bidirectional fluxes are found to occur predominantly in the lobe directly connected to the sunward interplanetary magnetic field in the open magnetosphere model (north lobe for away sectors and south lobe for toward sectors). Electron anisotropy and magnetic field data are presented which show the transition from unidirectional (sheath) electron populations to bidirectional (lobe) populations. The open nature of the distant magnetopause is demonstrated and it is shown that the source of the higher-energy, bidirectional lobe electrons is the tailward directed electron heat flux population in the distant magnetosheath. Taken together, the present evidence suggests that the bidirectional electrons that were observed in the distant tail are closely related to the polar rain electrons observed previously at lower altitudes. Furthermore, these data provide strong evidence that the distant tail is composed largely of open magnetic field lines in contradistinction to some recently advanced models.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 5637-566
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Both average and substorm conditions in the distant magnetotail were investigated using ISEE 3 magnetic field and plasma observations. The diameter of the tail, the strength of the lobe magnetic fields, and their dependence on downstream distance were all found to agree well with the flaring tail models of magnetopause geometry and pressure balance. The gradual filling of the lobes by mantle plasma reported in previous ISEE 3 studies were further investigated, and the results were found to be in qualitative agreement with leaky magnetopause model of Pilipp and Morfill (1978). The variations of plasma parameters with X + or -Y, and AE in the plasma sheet were examined. At all distances, the greatest tailward flow speeds were found to be directly proportional to the embedded southward B(z). THe magnitudes of tailward V(x) and southward B(z) are directly proportional to the level of substorm activity near the earth as measured by the AE index.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 90; 10
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: On October 1 1983, ISEE-3 crossed the earth's bow shock several times and entered the magnetosphere while continuously recording the nonthermal continuum (NTC) radio emission which is generated inside the magnetosphere. The effects of the solar wind, the bow shock, the magnetosheath, and the magnetopause on the propagation of the NTC are studied. On that day it is found that: (1) the relative values of the NTC low frequency cut-off in the solar wind and in the magnetosheath is due to an unusually high density overshoot in the bow shock, 7 to 11 times the solar wind density; (2) refraction at the interface between the magnetosheath and the solar wind can explain most of the decrease in the source angular size when the observer travels away from the earth; (3) plasma density irregularities in the magnetosheath cause considerable scattering of the NTC, and this effect gives a large apparent size to the NTC source when observed from inside the magnetosheath; and (4) the apparent source is also relatively large inside the magnetosphere, probably due to an approach to ray isotropy caused by oblique reflections from the magnetopause.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Annales Geophysicae (ISSN 0980-8752); 6; 309-318
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 71-81
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