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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 377 (1995), S. 704-707 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Distinguishing between thin- and thick-skinned styles of deformation was a long-running controversy in understanding the origin of terrestrial mountain belts, and both styles of deformation are now understood to play a role9, sometimes in the same mountain belt10 I3. Classic examples of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Radiometric observations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) can be used to improve the ephemeris of Phobos, with particular interest in refining estimates of the secular acceleration due to tidal dissipation within Mars. We have searched the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) radiometry data for shadows cast by the moon Phobos, finding 7 such profiles during the Mapping and Extended Mission phases, and 5 during the last two years of radiometry operations. Preliminary data suggest that the motion of Phobos has advanced by one or more seconds beyond that predicted by the current ephemerides, and the advance has increased over the 5 years of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) operations.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Geophysics; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Knowledge of the gravitational field, in combination with surface topography, provides one of the principal means of inferring the internal structure of a planetary body. The highest resolution gravitational field for Mars published thus far was derived from Doppler tracking data from the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 spacecraft and is complete to degree and order 18 corresponding to a half wavelength resolution of approximately 600 km. This field, which is characterized by a spatial resolution that is slightly better than that of the highest resolution (16x16) topographic model, has been utilized extensively in analyses of the state of stress and isostatic compensation of the Martian lithosphere. However, the resolution and quality of current gravity and topographic fields are such that the origin and evolution of even the major physiographic features on Mars, such as the hemispheric dichotomy and Tharsis rise, are not well understood. We have re-analyzed the Viking and Mariner data sets and have derived a new gravitational field, which we designated GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1). This model is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50 with a corresponding (half wavelength) spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. In contrast to previous models, GMM-1 was solved to as high degree and order as necessary to nearly exhaust the attenuated gravitational signal contained in the tracking data.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1317-1318
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  • 4
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: Tectonic deformation in the plains of Venus is pervasive, with virtually every area of the planet showing evidence for faulting or fracturing. This deformation can be classified into three general categories, defined by the intensity and areal extent of the surface deformation: distributed deformation, concentrated deformation, and local fracture patterns.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The Moon's polar permanent shadow regions (PSR) have long been considered the unique repository for volatile Hydrogen (H) Largely, this was due to the extreme and persistently cold environment that has been maintained over eons of lunar history. However, recent discoveries indicate that the H picture may be more complex than thc PSR hypothesis suggests. Observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detect (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) indicate some H concentrations lie outside PSR. Similarly, observations from Chandraayan-l's M3 and Deep Impact's EPOXI near infra-red observations indicate diurnal cycling of volatile H in lower latitudes. These results suggest other geophysical phenomena may also play a role in the Lunar Hydrogen budget. In this presentation we review the techniques and results from the recent high latitude analysis and apply similar techniques to equatorial regions. Results from our low latitude analysis will be reported. We discuss interpretations and implications for Lunar Hydrogen studies
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Understanding the origin and evolution of major photographic features on Mars, such as the hemispheric dichotomy and Tharsis rise, will require improved resolution of that planet's gravitational and topographic fields. The highest resolution gravity model for Mars published to date was derived from Doppler tracking data from the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 spacecraft, and is of 18th degree and order. That field has a maximum spatial resolution of approx. 600 km, which is comparable to that of the best topographic model. The resolution of previous gravity models was limited not by data density, but rather by the computational resources available at the time. Because this restriction is no longer a limitation, the Viking and Mariner data sets were reanalyzed and a gravitational field was derived complete to the 40th degree and order with a corresponding maximum spatial resolution of 300 km where the data permit.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990; p 85-86
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The recent Magellan images have revealed a broad spatial distribution of surface volcanism on Venus. Previous work in modeling the ascent of magma on both Venus and Earth has indicated that the planetary thermal structure significantly influences the magmatic cooling rates and thus the amount of magma that can be transported to the surface before solidification. In order to understand which aspects of the thermal structure have the greatest influence on the cooling of ascending magma, we have constructed magma cooling curves for both plutonic and crack buoyant ascent mechanisms, and evaluated the curves for variations in the planetary mantle temperature, thermal gradient curvature with depth, surface temperature gradient, and surface temperature. The planetary thermal structure is modeled as T/T(sub 0) = 1-tau(1-Z/Z(sub 0)(exp n), where T is the temperature, T(sub 0) is the source depth temperature, tau = 1-(T(sub s)/T(sub 0)) where T(sub s) is the planetary surface temperature, Z is the depth, Z(sub 0) is the source depth, and n is a constant that controls thermal gradient curvature with depth. The equation is used both for mathematical convenience and flexibility, as well as its fit to the thermal gradients predicted by the cooling half-space models. We assume a constant velocity buoyant ascent, body-averaged magma temperatures and properties, an initially crystal-free magma, and the same liquidus and solidus for both Venus and Earth.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Papers Presented to the International Colloquium on Venus; p 96-97
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Limited information on the types of geologic hazards (boulders, troughs, craters etc.) that will affect rover trafficability on Mars are available for the two Viking Lander sites, and there are no prospects for increasing this knowledge base in the near future. None of the instrument payloads on the upcoming Mars Observer or Soviet PHOBOS missions can directly measure surface obstacles on the scales of concern for rover safety (a few meters). Candidate instruments for the Soviet Mars 92 orbiter/balloon/rover mission such as balloon-borne stereo imaging, rover panoramic imaging, and orbital synthetic aperature imaging (SAR) are under discussion, but data from this mission may not be available for target areas of interest for the U.S. Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) mission. In an effort to determine how to directly measure the topography of surface obstacles that could affect rover trafficability on Mars, we are studying how to design a laser altimeter with extremely high spatial and vertical resolution that would be suitable for a future Mars Orbiter spacecraft (MRSR precursor or MRSR orbiter). This report discusses some of the design issues associated with such an instrument, gives examples of laser altimeter data collected for Mars analog terrains on Earth, and outlines the scientific potential of data that could be obtained with the system.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Mars Sample Return Science; p 81-82
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The first reliable model of the structure of the crust and upper mantle of Mars from remote observations was produced using data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and the Radio Science investigation of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). That model assumed a uniform crustal density and solved for the global variations in crustal thickness using a gravity field derived from preliminary MGS tracking. In that study, spherical harmonic potential coefficients were derived to degree and order 80, but crustal structure was interpreted cautiously to degree 60, or 360 km wavelength, owing to the presence of noise. Tracking normal equations have since been generated to degree 75, to degree 80 (supplemented by altimetric crossovers), and recently to degree 90, using new constants for the orientation of the spin pole and the rotation rate of Mars provided by the IAU2000 rotation model. Gravity models now incorporate tracking data coverage from the Primary and Extended MGS missions and the early phases of the Mars Odyssey mission. In the present study we exploit these advances in gravity modeling to present a refined crustal inversion, which we also interpret in the context of Mars' internal structure and thermal evolution.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Geophysics; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: The Earth is a dynamic system-it has a fluid, mobile atmosphere and oceans, a continually changing distribution of ice, snow, and groundwater, a fluid core undergoing hydromagnetic motion, a mantle undergoing both thermal convection and rebound from glacial loading of the last ice age, and mobile tectonic plates.
    Type: EOS
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