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  • 1
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2006-06-18
    Description: The modular power system, which is the first intended use for the NASA standard battery, is basically a four foot by four foot by eighteen inch box which can handle a complement of three 20 ampere hour batteries or later on the intended use is for three 50 ampere hour batteries to be the full complement. The system is designed to be used as a plug on component on a multi mission modular spacecraft. It has as a design point a basically 1250 watt orbital average load. The way it breaks up in a near earth orbit it would be somewhere around 1,000 watts for everything except 10 minutes, and during any 10 minute period it may go up to a peak of 3,000 watt load. Features of the battery reviewed include criteria to store electrical energy, the battery package, the covers and cases, and electrolytes. The capacities expected are 90 percent, the average cell capacity for 24 C, 90 percent of the actual battery capacity of 19 C, and 85 percent of the actual 25 degree battery capacity at zero discharge voltage for 50 percent DOD new battery is in the vicinity expected or predicted of 26.4 volts.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center The 1977 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop; p 437-450
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We have used discrete-event simulation to model the malaria transmission in a Thailand village with approximately 700 residents. Specifically, we model the detailed interactions among the vector life cycle, sporogonic cycle and human infection cycle under the explicit influences of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Some of the meteorological and environmental parameters used in the simulation are derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the Ikonos satellite data. Parameters used in the simulations reflect the realistic condition of the village, including the locations and sizes of the households, ages and estimated immunity of the residents, presence of farm animals, and locations of larval habitats. Larval habitats include the actual locations where larvae were collected and the probable locations based on satellite data. The output of the simulation includes the individual infection status and the quantities normally observed in field studies, such as mosquito biting rates, sporozoite infection rates, gametocyte prevalence and incidence. Simulated transmission under homogeneous environmental condition was compared with that predicted by a SEIR model. Sensitivity of the output with respect to some extrinsic and intrinsic factors was investigated. Results were compared with mosquito vector and human malaria data acquired over 4.5 years (June 1999 - January 2004) in Kong Mong Tha, a remote village in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. The simulation method is useful for testing transmission hypotheses, estimating the efficacy of insecticide applications, assessing the impacts of nonimmune immigrants, and predicting the effects of socioeconomic, environmental and climatic changes.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: ASTMH Annual Meeting; 4-8 Nov. 2007; Philadelphia, PA; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The dynamics of malaria transmission are driven by environmental, biotic and socioeconomic factors. Because of the geographic dependency of these factors and the complex interactions among them, it is difficult to generalize the key factors that perpetuate or intensify malaria transmission. Methods: Discrete event simulations were used for modeling the detailed interactions among the vector life cycle, sporogonic cycle and human infection cycle, under the explicit influences of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Meteorological and environmental parameters may be derived from satellite data. The output of the model includes the individual infection status and the quantities normally observed in field studies, such as mosquito biting rates, sporozoite infection rates, gametocyte prevalence and incidence. Results were compared with mosquito vector and human malaria data acquired over 4.5 years (June 1999 - January 2004) in Kong Mong Tha, a remote village in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. Results: Three years of transmissions of vivax and falciparum malaria were simulated for a hypothetical hamlet with approximately 1/7 of the study site population. The model generated results for a number of scenarios, including applications of larvicide and insecticide, asymptomatic cases receiving or not receiving treatment, blocking malaria transmission in mosquito vectors, and increasing the density of farm (host) animals in the hamlet. Transmission characteristics and trends in the simulated results are comparable to actual data collected at the study site.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: International Conference of Emerging Infectious Diseases; 19-22 Mar. 2006; Atlanta, GA; United States
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-19
    Description: Mobile acoustic surveys are a common method of surveying bat communities. However, there is a paucity of empirical studies exploring different methods for conducting mobile road surveys of bats. During 2013, we conducted acoustic mobile surveys on three routes in north-central Indiana, U.S.A., using (1) a standard road survey, (2) a road survey where the vehicle stopped for 1 min at every half mile of the survey route (called a “start-stop method”), and (3) a road survey with an individual using a bicycle. Linear mixed models with multiple comparison procedures revealed that when all bat passes were analyzed, using a bike to conduct mobile surveys detected significantly more bat passes per unit time compared to other methods. However, incorporating genus-level comparisons revealed no advantage to using a bike over vehicle-based methods. We also found that survey method had a significant effect when analyses were limited to those bat passes that could be identified to genus, with the start–stop method generally detecting more identifiable passes than the standard protocol or bike survey. Additionally, we found that significantly more identifiable bat passes (particularly those of the Eptesicus and Lasiurus genera) were detected in surveys conducted immediately following sunset. As governing agencies, particularly in North America, implement vehicle-based bat monitoring programs, it is important for researchers to understand how variations on protocols influence the inference that can be gained from different monitoring schemes. Vehicle-based mobile acoustic surveys of bats have become a common tool for assessing bat communities and population change across the globe. We assessed the impact that both the timing of these surveys as well as modifications to the standard protocol had on the ability of such surveys to effectively sample a bat community. We found that surveys started shortly after sunset recorded more high-quality bat calls than those begun later in the night and that a mobile protocol that implemented periodic stops was more effective per unit time at recording identifiable bat echolocation calls than the standard method or a bike-based protocol.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: A major challenge in evaluating the contribution of rare variants to complex disease is identifying enough copies of the rare alleles to permit informative statistical analysis. To investigate the contribution of rare variants to the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related traits, we performed deep whole-genome analysis of...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-08-26
    Description: Author(s): S. Förster, M. Trautmann, S. Roy, W. A. Adeagbo, E. M. Zollner, R. Hammer, F. O. Schumann, K. Meinel, S. K. Nayak, K. Mohseni, W. Hergert, H. L. Meyerheim, and W. Widdra We report on the first observation of an approximant structure to the recently discovered two-dimensional oxide quasicrystal. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and surface x-ray diffraction in combination with ab initio calculations, the atomic structure and the b… [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 095501] Published Wed Aug 24, 2016
    Keywords: Condensed Matter: Structure, etc.
    Print ISSN: 0031-9007
    Electronic ISSN: 1079-7114
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-10-25
    Description: Author(s): Klaus Zollner, Martin Gmitra, Tobias Frank, and Jaroslav Fabian Graphene, being essentially a surface, can borrow some properties of an insulating substrate (such as exchange or spin-orbit couplings) while still preserving a great degree of autonomy of its electronic structure. Such derived properties are commonly labeled as proximity. Here we perform systematic… [Phys. Rev. B 94, 155441] Published Mon Oct 24, 2016
    Keywords: Surface physics, nanoscale physics, low-dimensional systems
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-05-19
    Description: Rare genetic variants contribute to complex disease risk; however, the abundance of rare variants in human populations remains unknown. We explored this spectrum of variation by sequencing 202 genes encoding drug targets in 14,002 individuals. We find rare variants are abundant (1 every 17 bases) and geographically localized, so that even with large sample sizes, rare variant catalogs will be largely incomplete. We used the observed patterns of variation to estimate population growth parameters, the proportion of variants in a given frequency class that are putatively deleterious, and mutation rates for each gene. We conclude that because of rapid population growth and weak purifying selection, human populations harbor an abundance of rare variants, many of which are deleterious and have relevance to understanding disease risk.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319976/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319976/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nelson, Matthew R -- Wegmann, Daniel -- Ehm, Margaret G -- Kessner, Darren -- St Jean, Pamela -- Verzilli, Claudio -- Shen, Judong -- Tang, Zhengzheng -- Bacanu, Silviu-Alin -- Fraser, Dana -- Warren, Liling -- Aponte, Jennifer -- Zawistowski, Matthew -- Liu, Xiao -- Zhang, Hao -- Zhang, Yong -- Li, Jun -- Li, Yun -- Li, Li -- Woollard, Peter -- Topp, Simon -- Hall, Matthew D -- Nangle, Keith -- Wang, Jun -- Abecasis, Goncalo -- Cardon, Lon R -- Zollner, Sebastian -- Whittaker, John C -- Chissoe, Stephanie L -- Novembre, John -- Mooser, Vincent -- T32 HG002536/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jul 6;337(6090):100-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1217876. Epub 2012 May 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA. matthew.r.nelson@gsk.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22604722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: African Americans/genetics ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group ; Disease/*genetics ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Gene Frequency ; Genetic Association Studies ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; *Genetic Variation ; *Genome, Human ; Geography ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Humans ; Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Multifactorial Inheritance ; Mutation Rate ; Pharmacogenetics ; Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Population Growth ; Sample Size ; Selection, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2002-04-16
    Description: Although humans and their closest evolutionary relatives, the chimpanzees, are 98.7% identical in their genomic DNA sequences, they differ in many morphological, behavioral, and cognitive aspects. The underlying genetic basis of many of these differences may be altered gene expression. We have compared the transcriptome in blood leukocytes, liver, and brain of humans, chimpanzees, orangutans, and macaques using microarrays, as well as protein expression patterns of humans and chimpanzees using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We also studied three mouse species that are approximately as related to each other as are humans, chimpanzees, and orangutans. We identified species-specific gene expression patterns indicating that changes in protein and gene expression have been particularly pronounced in the human brain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Enard, Wolfgang -- Khaitovich, Philipp -- Klose, Joachim -- Zollner, Sebastian -- Heissig, Florian -- Giavalisco, Patrick -- Nieselt-Struwe, Kay -- Muchmore, Elaine -- Varki, Ajit -- Ravid, Rivka -- Doxiadis, Gaby M -- Bontrop, Ronald E -- Paabo, Svante -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2002 Apr 12;296(5566):340-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Inselstrasse 22, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11951044" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Evolution ; Brain/*metabolism ; DNA, Complementary ; Female ; *Gene Expression ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Haplorhini/*genetics ; Hominidae/genetics ; Humans ; Leukocytes/*metabolism ; Liver/*metabolism ; Macaca mulatta/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Muridae/genetics ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Organ Specificity ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Pongo pygmaeus/genetics ; Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2005-04-30
    Description: The ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), long suspected to be extinct, has been rediscovered in the Big Woods region of eastern Arkansas. Visual encounters during 2004 and 2005, and analysis of a video clip from April 2004, confirm the existence of at least one male. Acoustic signatures consistent with Campephilus display drums also have been heard from the region. Extensive efforts to find birds away from the primary encounter site remain unsuccessful, but potential habitat for a thinly distributed source population is vast (over 220,000 hectares).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fitzpatrick, John W -- Lammertink, Martjan -- Luneau, M David Jr -- Gallagher, Tim W -- Harrison, Bobby R -- Sparling, Gene M -- Rosenberg, Kenneth V -- Rohrbaugh, Ronald W -- Swarthout, Elliott C H -- Wrege, Peter H -- Swarthout, Sara Barker -- Dantzker, Marc S -- Charif, Russell A -- Barksdale, Timothy R -- Remsen, J V Jr -- Simon, Scott D -- Zollner, Douglas -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Jun 3;308(5727):1460-2. Epub 2005 Apr 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Cornell University, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA. jwf7@cornell.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15860589" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arkansas ; Biological Evolution ; *Birds ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; Ecology ; Male ; Video Recording
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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