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  • 1
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    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hennekam, Rick; Zinke, Jens; Van Sebille, Erik; Ten Have, Malou; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; Reichart, Gert-Jan (2018): Cocos (Keeling) corals reveal 200 years of multi-decadal modulation of southeast Indian Ocean hydrology by Indonesian Throughflow. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017PA003181
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The only low latitude pathway of heat and salt from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean, known as Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), has been suggested to modulate Global Mean Surface Temperature (GMST) warming through redistribution of surface Pacific Ocean heat. ITF observations are only available since ~1990s, and thus, its multidecadal variability on longer time scales has remained elusive. Here we present a 200 year bimonthly record of geochemical parameters (d18O-Sr/Ca) measured on Cocos (Keeling) corals tracking sea surface temperature (SST; Sr/Ca) and sea surface salinity (SSS; seawater-d18O-d18Osw) in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO). Our results show that SETIO SSS and d18Osw were impacted by ITF transport over the past 60 years, and therefore, reconstructions of Cocos d18Osw hold information on past ITF variability on longer time spans. Over the past 200 years ITF leakage into SETIO is dominated by the interannual climate modes of the Pacific Ocean (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) and Indian Ocean (Indian Ocean Dipole). Pacific decadal climate variability (represented by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) significantly impacted ITF strength over the past 200 years determining the spatiotemporal SST and SSS advection into the Indian Ocean on multidecadal time scales. A comparison of our SETIO d18Osw record to GMST shows that ITF transport varied in synchrony with global warming rate, being predominantly high/low during GMST warming slowdown/acceleration, respectively. This hints toward an important role for the ITF in global warming rate modulation.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-09-26
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 30 (2015): 226–252, doi:10.1002/2014PA002717.
    Description: Most annually resolved climate reconstructions of the Common Era are based on terrestrial data, making it a challenge to independently assess how recent climate changes have affected the oceans. Here as part of the Past Global Changes Ocean2K project, we present four regionally calibrated and validated reconstructions of sea surface temperatures in the tropics, based on 57 published and publicly archived marine paleoclimate data sets derived exclusively from tropical coral archives. Validation exercises suggest that our reconstructions are interpretable for much of the past 400 years, depending on the availability of paleoclimate data within, and the reconstruction validation statistics for, each target region. Analysis of the trends in the data suggests that the Indian, western Pacific, and western Atlantic Ocean regions were cooling until modern warming began around the 1830s. The early 1800s were an exceptionally cool period in the Indo-Pacific region, likely due to multiple large tropical volcanic eruptions occurring in the early nineteenth century. Decadal-scale variability is a quasi-persistent feature of all basins. Twentieth century warming associated with greenhouse gas emissions is apparent in the Indian, West Pacific, and western Atlantic Oceans, but we find no evidence that either natural or anthropogenic forcings have altered El Niño–Southern Oscillation-related variance in tropical sea surface temperatures. Our marine-based regional paleoclimate reconstructions serve as benchmarks against which terrestrial reconstructions as well as climate model simulations can be compared and as a basis for studying the processes by which the tropical oceans mediate climate variability and change.
    Description: J.E.T. and K.J.A. acknowledge Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for internal support. K.J.A. acknowledges the Frank and Lisina Hoch Endowed Fund at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for support. N.J.A. is supported by an Australian Research Council QEII fellowship (DP110101161), and this research contributes to ARC Discovery Grant DP140102059. M.N.E. is supported by NSF/ATM0902794 and NSF/ATM0902715. J.Z. was supported by an Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre fellowship and an Honorary Research Fellowship by the University of the Witwatersrand. H.C.W. is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through DFG-Research Center/Cluster of Excellence “The Ocean in the Earth System” at the University of Bremen (MARUM Fellowship). C.G. acknowledges MARUM–Center for Marine Environmental Sciences for internal support. K.H.K. is supported by NOAA grant NA11OAR4310171.
    Keywords: Climate reconstruction ; Corals ; Paleoceanography ; Last millennium climate
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/msword
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-07-21
    Description: Reproducible climate reconstructions of the Common Era (1 CE to present) are key to placing industrial-era warming into the context of natural climatic variability. Here we present a community-sourced database of temperature-sensitive proxy records from the PAGES2k initiative. The database gathers 692 records from 648 locations, including all continental regions and major ocean basins. The records are from trees, ice, sediment, corals, speleothems, documentary evidence, and other archives. They range in length from 50 to 2000 years, with a median of 547 years, while temporal resolution ranges from biweekly to centennial. Nearly half of the proxy time series are significantly correlated with HadCRUT4.2 surface temperature over the period 1850–2014. Global temperature composites show a remarkable degree of coherence between high- and low-resolution archives, with broadly similar patterns across archive types, terrestrial versus marine locations, and screening criteria. The database is suited to investigations of global and regional temperature variability over the Common Era, and is shared in the Linked Paleo Data (LiPD) format, including serializations in Matlab, R and Python.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: In order to assess the fidelity of coral Sr/Ca for quantitative reconstructions of sea surface temperature variations, we have generated three monthly Sr/Ca time series from Porites corals from the lagoon of Peros Banhos (71°E, 5°S, Chagos Archipelago). We find that all three coral Sr/Ca time series are well correlated with instrumental records of sea surface temperature (SST) and air temperature. However, the intrinsic variance of the single-core Sr/Ca time series differs from core to core, limiting their use for quantitative estimates of past temperature variations. Averaging the single-core data improves the correlation with instrumental temperature (r 〉 0.7) and allows accurate estimates of interannual temperature variations (~0.35°C or better). All Sr/Ca time series indicate a shift towards warmer temperatures in the mid-1970s, which coincides with the most recent regime shift in the Pacific Ocean. However, the magnitude of the warming inferred from coral Sr/Ca differs from core to core and ranges from 0.26 to 0.75°C. The composite Sr/Ca record from Peros Banhos clearly captures the major climatic signals in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, i.e. the El Niño–southern oscillation and the Pacific decadal oscillation. Moreover, composite Sr/Ca is highly correlated with tropical mean temperatures (r = 0.7), suggesting that coral Sr/Ca time series from the tropical Indian Ocean will contribute to multi-proxy reconstructions of tropical mean temperatures.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: We examine the relationship between three tropical and two subtropical western Indian Ocean coral oxygen isotope time series to surface air temperatures (SAT) and rainfall over India, tropical East Africa and southeast Africa. We review established relationships, provide new concepts with regard to distinct rainfall seasons, and mean annual temperatures. Tropical corals are coherent with SAT over western India and East Africa at interannual and multidecadal periodicities. The subtropical corals correlate with Southeast African SAT at periodicities of 16–30 years. The relationship between the coral records and land rainfall is more complex. Running correlations suggest varying strength of interannual teleconnections between the tropical coral oxygen isotope records and rainfall over equatorial East Africa. The relationship with rainfall over India changed in the 1970s. The subtropical oxygen isotope records are coherent with South African rainfall at interdecadal periodicities. Paleoclimatological reconstructions of land rainfall and SAT reveal that the inferred relationships generally hold during the last 350 years. Thus, the Indian Ocean corals prove invaluable for investigating land–ocean interactions during past centuries.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    Royal Society of London
    In:  Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A: Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 363(A) (1826). pp. 121-142.
    Publication Date: 2019-08-08
    Description: We present a set of Porites coral oxygen isotope records from the tropical and subtropical Western Indian Ocean covering the past 120–336 years. All records were thoroughly validated for proxy response to regional climate factors and their relation to large-scale climate modes. The records show markedly different imprints of regional climate factors. At the same time, all coral records show clear teleconnections between the Western Indian Ocean and the El Ni˜no–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The multi-proxy site analysis enables the detection of the covariance structure between individual records and climate modes such as ENSO. This method unravels shifts in ENSO teleconnectivity of the Western and Central Indian Ocean on multi-decadal time-scales (after 1976). The Seychelles record shows a stationary correlation with ENSO, Chagos corals show evidence for non-stationary δ18O/ENSO relationships and the Southwestern Indian Ocean corals show a strong relationship with ENSO when the forcing is strong (1880–1920, 1970 to present). Our results indicate that the coral δ18O, in combination with other proxies, can be used to monitor temporal and spatial variations in the sea-surface temperature and the fresh water balance within the Indian Ocean on interannual to interdecadal time-scales.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Springer
    In:  International Journal of Earth Sciences, 98 (1). pp. 41-52.
    Publication Date: 2017-05-18
    Description: We investigate Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) signals recorded by two bimonthly resolved coral δ18O series from La Réunion and Ifaty (West Madagascar), Indian Ocean from 1882 to 1993. To isolate the main PDO frequencies, we apply a band pass filter to the time series passing only periodicities from 16 to 28 years. We investigate the covariance patterns of the coral time series with sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP) of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In addition, the empirical orthogonal functions of the filtered SST and SLP fields (single and coupled) are related to the filtered coral times series. The covariance maps show the typical PDO pattern for SST and SLP, confirming the coupling between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Both corals show the strongest signal in boreal summer. The La Réunion (Ifaty) coral better records SST (SLP) than SLP (SST) pattern variability. We suggest that the filtered La Réunion coral δ18O represents δ18O of seawater that varies with the South Equatorial Current, which, in turn, is linked with the SST PDO. The filtered Ifaty coral δ18O represents SST and is remotely linked with the SLP PDO variability. A combined coral record of the Ifaty and La Réunion boreal summer δ18O series explains about 64% of the variance of the coupled SST/SLP PDO time series.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-07-19
    Description: Twelve gravity cores from various settings within the Mayotte barrier reef–lagoon complex were studied to determine the sedimentology of the sequence stratigraphic systems tracts that formed during the Holocene transgression. Our studies focussed on the determination of physical, chemical, mineralogical and biological parameters of the sediments from specific systems tracts. These parameters determine the thickness and facies of each systems tracts and are controlled by the rate and amplitude of sea-level rise, lagoonal topography and environmental changes. The lowstand systems tract (LST) (before 11.5 ka BP) comprises ferralitic or organic-rich paleosoils in the proximal and middle lagoon and karstified Pleistocene reefal carbonates in the distal lagoon. The transgressive systems tract (TST) (11.5–7 ka BP) consists of a lower terrigenous and an upper mixed terrigenous–carbonate or carbonate-dominated unit. Locally, mangrove muds were deposited. The highstand systems tract (HST) can be divided into an early highstand (eHST) (7–1 ka BP) and a late highstand systems tract (lHST) (after 1 ka BP). In the proximal lagoonal wedge, the early highstand systems tract consists of terrigenous or mixed terrigenous–carbonate muds to sandy muds. In the middle lagoon, it shows carbonate mud to sandy mud and carbonate gravel to reefal carbonates in the distal lagoons. Terrigenous muds dominate the late highstand systems tract in the proximal lagoonal wedge. In the mid-lagoonal plain, mixed terrigenous–carbonate or carbonate mud to sandy mud dominates, while carbonate gravel to reefal carbonate prevails in the distal lagoon. For the last 9 ka, sedimentation in the lagoon of Mayotte has been spatially divided into a proximal terrigenous and a distal, carbonate-dominated province. Maximum carbonate concentrations between 4 and 1 ka BP coincide with the time of maximum solar insolation. After 1 ka BP, a general decrease in carbonate concentrations can be observed. This coincides with increased terrigenous sediment input, which results from a reduction in accommodation space and to some extent is of anthropogenic origin.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The western Indian Ocean has been warming faster than any other tropical ocean during the 20th century, and is the largest contributor to the global mean sea surface temperature (SST) rise. However, the temporal pattern of Indian Ocean warming is poorly constrained and depends on the historical SST product. As all SST products are derived from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere dataset (ICOADS), it is challenging to evaluate which product is superior. Here, we present a new, independent SST reconstruction from a set of Porites coral geochemical records from the western Indian Ocean. Our coral reconstruction shows that the World War II bias in the historical sea surface temperature record is the main reason for the differences between the SST products, and affects western Indian Ocean and global mean temperature trends. The 20th century Indian Ocean warming pattern portrayed by the corals is consistent with the SST product from the Hadley Centre (HadSST3), and suggests that the latter should be used in climate studies that include Indian Ocean SSTs. Our data shows that multi-core coral temperature reconstructions help to evaluate the SST products. Proxy records can provide estimates of 20th century SST that are truly independent from the ICOADS data base.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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