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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Description: ABSTRACT FINAL ID: PP23A-1831 We here present (isotope)geochemical and sedimentological data from marine sediment cores from the northern Gulf of Mexico to approximate the temporally and spatially varying terrigenous sediment contribution via the Mississippi River and the related spread of freshwater over the last glacial-interglacial cycles, with specific focus on the last ca. 42.000 years. Our study is based on cores from the DeSoto Canyon (MD02-2576 and 2575), from ~90 km southeast off the Mississippi River delta (M78-181), and from southwest of the delta (IODP 1319A). The geochemical signature of the eastern cores closely matches that of the Mississippi catchment area rather than those of the Alabama and Mobile River catchments. In particular, the siliciclastic major element potassium (K), estimated from calibrated XRF core scanning, serves as a suitable proxy for Mississippi River sediment discharge, becoming less concentrated with distance from the delta. The K variability suggests enhanced glacial phase terrigenous influx triggered by strengthened fluvial runoff and changing fluvial and ice sheet dynamics. Mississippi River influx was at a maximum during glacial MIS 2/3, late MIS 8 and MIS 10, reflected by sedimentation rates being 4 to 5 times higher than in the Holocene. Late glacial to deglacial fluvial sediment supply, however, decreased abruptly at ca. 20 ka at our easternmost core location (MD02-2576), and ca. 2 kyr later at our core location closest to the Mississippi Delta, implying a gradual westward shift of the Mississippi outflow. Due to synchronous changes in sea-surface temperatures, we hypothesize an increasing impact of the northward extending Loop Current on the Mississippi outflow pattern. Combined stable oxygen isotope and element ratios from shallow and deep-dwelling as well as benthic foraminifers allow to approximate paleosalinity, and hence to follow the dispersal of freshwater across the Gulf of Mexico. According to our data, Mississippi freshwater discharge events appeared during the last glacial and during Termination II, but were mostly confound to the southwest of the Mississippi River delta. The prominent discharge event during Heinrich 1 and the Boelling/Alleroed warm period is also observed at core location M78-181, but not further to the east. Notably, sediment supply during this megadischarge event is insignificant compared to full glacial conditions, suggesting that signals of freshwater and sediment supply became decoupled. Holocene changes of Mississippi discharge are closely related to the sea-surface temperature and salinity development in the northern Gulf, most likely amplified by the migration of the Innertropical Convergence Zone, related dislocations of the Hadley Cell, and changes in climatic zones.
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-04-15
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2015. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of American Association for the Advancement of Science for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Science 349 (2015): 706-710, doi:10.1126/science.aaa9554.
    Description: Changes in the formation of dense water in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas (the ‘Arctic Mediterranean’, AM) likely contributed to the altered climate of the last glacial period. We examine past changes in AM circulation by reconstructing 14C ventilation ages of the deep Nordic Seas over the last 30,000 years. Our results show that the deep glacial AM was extremely poorly ventilated (ventilation ages of up to 10,000 years). Subsequent episodic overflow of aged water into the mid-depth North Atlantic occurred during deglaciation. Proxy data also suggest the deep glacial AM was ~2-3°C warmer than modern; deglacial mixing of the deep AM with the upper ocean thus potentially contributed to melting sea-ice and icebergs, as well as proximal terminal ice-sheet margins.
    Description: Funding was provided by a WHOI OCCI scholarship and OCCI grant 27071264 (DJRT); WHOI OCCI and NSF grants OIA-1124880 and OCE-1357121 (GG); the WHOI J. Lamar Worzel Assistant Scientist Fund, the Penzance Endowed Fund in Support of Assistant Scientists and NSF ANT-1246387 (WG); EU FP7 Marie Curie grant No. 298513 (MZ), grant DP140101393 (JY); and NERC grant NE/J008133/1 (SB).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-26
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Progress in Earth and Planetary Science 5 (2018): 19, doi:10.1186/s40645-018-0167-8.
    Description: The Quaternary hemipelagic sediments of the Japan Sea are characterized by centimeter- to decimeter-scale alternation of dark and light clay to silty clay, which are bio-siliceous and/or bio-calcareous to a various degree. Each of the dark and light layers are considered as deposited synchronously throughout the deeper (〉 500 m) part of the sea. However, attempts for correlation and age estimation of individual layers are limited to the upper few tens of meters. In addition, the exact timing of the depositional onset of these dark and light layers and its synchronicity throughout the deeper part of the sea have not been explored previously, although the onset timing was roughly estimated as ~ 1.5 Ma based on the result of Ocean Drilling Program legs 127/128. Consequently, it is not certain exactly when their deposition started, whether deposition of dark and light layers was synchronous and whether they are correlatable also in the earlier part of their depositional history. The Quaternary hemipelagic sediments of the Japan Sea were drilled at seven sites during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 346 in 2013. Alternation of dark and light layers was recovered at six sites whose water depths are 〉 ~ 900 m, and continuous composite columns were constructed at each site. Here, we report our effort to correlate individual dark layers and estimate their ages based on a newly constructed age model at Site U1424 using the best available paleomagnetic datum and marker tephras. The age model is further tuned to LR04 δ18O curve using gamma ray attenuation density (GRA) since it reflects diatom contents that are higher during interglacial high-stands. The constructed age model for Site U1424 is projected to other sites using correlation of dark layers to form a high-resolution and high-precision paleo-observatory network that allows to reconstruct changes in material fluxes with high spatio-temporal resolutions.
    Description: This work was supported by a grant from IODP Exp. 346 After Cruise Research Program, JAMSTEC, awarded to TR, IK, Irino T, Itaki T, ST, KY, SS, and KA and from JSPS KAKENHI grant number 16H01765 awarded to TR.
    Keywords: Quaternary sediments ; Japan Sea ; Inter-site correlation ; High-resolution age model ; IODP ; Expedition 346 ; U1424 ; U1425 ; U1426 ; U1430
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-06-10
    Description: This study focuses on clay smear processes during fault gouge evolution in sand-clay sequences at depths up to 2 km. A clay-rich fault gouge can dramatically lower the fault’s permeability, and prediction of this process is therefore relevant in groundwater modelling and hydrocarbon geology (Fulljames et al. 1997, Yielding et al 1997, van der Zee et al. 2003, 2005). We constructed an ‘underwater’ sandbox to deform layered sand-clay models of 20 × 40 × 20 cm above a 70°-dipping rigid basement fault. The experiments are run completely watersaturated to allow deformation of wet clay and cohesionless sand. The basement fault moves at 20 to 120mmh−1 to a maximum offset of 60 mm. We use quartz sand with grain size between 0.1 to 0.4mm and an illite-rich clay with a water content between 28 and 55 wt.%. Water content of the clay is used to control its shear strength and state of consolidation...
    Description: conference
    Keywords: VAE 140 ; VAE 120 ; VAE 130 ; VBB 000 ; VKA 120 ; VKB 270 ; Gesteinsdeformation {Strukturgeologie} ; Methodik {Strukturgeologie} ; Geomechanik ; Experimentelle Geologie ; Experimentelle Petrologie ; Produkte mechanischer Deformation {Petrologie} ; Verwerfung ; Störungsletten ; Experiment
    Language: German
    Type: anthologyArticle , publishedVersion
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Palaeoclimate records and numerical model simulations indicate that changes in tropical and subtropical sea surface temperatures and in the annual average position of the intertropical convergence zone are linked to high-latitude climate changes on millennial to glacial interglacial timescales. It has recently been suggested that cooling in the high latitudes associated with abrupt climate-change events is evident primarily during the northern hemisphere winter, implying increased seasonality at these times. However, it is unclear whether such a seasonal bias also exists for the low latitudes. Here we analyse the Mg/Ca ratios of surface-dwelling foraminifera to reconstruct sea surface temperatures in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico for the past 300,000 years. We suggest that sea surface temperatures are controlled by the migration of the northern boundary of the Atlantic Warm Pool, and hence the position of the intertropical convergence zone during boreal summer, and are relatively insensitive to winter conditions. Our results suggest that summer Atlantic Warm Pool expansion is primarily affected by glacialinterglacial variability and low-latitude summer insolation. Because a clear signature of rapid climate-change events, such as the Younger Dryas cold event, is lacking in our record, we conclude that high-latitude events seem to influence only the winter Caribbean climate conditions, consistent with the hypothesis of extreme northern-hemisphere seasonality during abrupt cooling events.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The Loop Current mediating the oceanic heat and salt flux from the Caribbean Sea into the Atlantic Ocean and its interference with the Mississippi River discharge are critical for both the regional climate in the Gulf of Mexico area and the water vapor transport towards high northern latitudes. We present a 400-kyr record of sea surface temperature and local surface salinity from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (IMAGES core MD02-2575) approximated from combined planktonic foraminiferal δ18O and Mg/Ca, which reflects the temporal dynamics of the Loop Current and its relationship to both varying Mississippi discharge and evolution of the Western Hemisphere Warm pool. The reconstructed sea surface temperature and salinity reveal glacial/interglacial amplitudes that are significantly larger than in the Western Hemisphere Warm pool. Sea surface freshening is observed during the extreme cool periods of Marine Isotope Stages 2, 8, and 10, caused by the strengthened Mississippi discharge which spread widely across the Gulf favored by the less established Loop Current. Interglacial and interstadial sea-surface conditions, instead, point to a strengthened, northward flowing Loop Current in line with the northward position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, allowing northeastern Gulf of Mexico surface hydrographic conditions to approach those of the Caribbean. At these times, the Mississippi discharge was low and deflected westward, promoted by the extended Loop Current. Previously described deglacial megadischarge events further to the west did not affect the northeastern Gulf of Mexico hydrography, implying that meltwater routing from the Laurentide Ice Sheet via the Mississippi River is unlikely to have affected Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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