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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Adrenaline ; epinephrine ; phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase ; PNMT ; epinine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Adrenaline (A) is synthesized in the adrenal medullae by the enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT). After surgical removal of the adrenal medullae tissue A levels ranged from 22% of control in the heart to 125% of control in the liver. Use of a novel assay to measure tissue A formation revealed that many tissues can synthesize A using PNMT and another enzyme that N-methylates both noradrenaline and dopamine. These enzymes are non-neuronal, inducible and synthesize a major fraction of tissue and urine A.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Atrial natriuretic factor ; hemorrhage ; tachycardia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is released in response to many stimuli which increase right atrial pressure. Following hemorrhage pigs lowered their atrial pressures, developed a tachycardia and increased ANF levels. Electrical pacing increased heart rate and ANF levels. There is a stimulus to ANF release other than atrial stretch, probably heart rate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Previous exercise in space has lacked sufficient loads to maintain preflight cardiovascular and musculoskeletal mass and function. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) produces a static force equivalent to one Earth body weight by each 52 mm Hg of LBNP during supine posture. LBNP also provides transmural blood pressures simulating upright exercise. Thus, this artificial-gravity concept may help maintain cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems of crewmembers during prolonged exposure to microgravity. Currently available, bungee cord assisted, treadmill exercise is limited by harness discomfort, lower than normal loads, abnormal post-flight gait, and the absence of gravitational blood pressures within the vascular system. PURPOSE: This project evaluates a method to create artificial gravity using supine LBNP treadmill exercise to prevent loss of physiologic function in microgravity simulated by 30 days of bed rest. Identical twins were used as volunteers so that statistical power could be maximized. This countermeasure is being transitioned to space flight. CURRENT STATUS OF RESEARCH Methods: Six sets of identical twins (6 females and 14 males, 21-36 years) remained in 6 head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest for 30 days to simulate prolonged microgravity. Six subjects were randomly selected to exercise supine in an LBNP chamber for 40 minutes six days per week (EX group), while their twin brothers served as non-exercise controls (CON). Pressure within the exercise LBNP chamber was adjusted to increase load, hence increasing exercise intensity. During supine treadmill exercise, LBNP (52-63 mmHg) was applied to produce foot ward forces equivalent to those for upright running on Earth at 1.0-1.2 times body weight (BW) and subjects performed an interval exercise protocol (40-80% peak exercise capacity [VO2pk]). Five minutes of resting LBNP immediately followed each exercise session. Results: Orthostatic tolerance time decreased significantly after 30 days bed rest in the CON group, but was relatively maintained in the EX group. VO2pk was maintained in EX males, but not in CON males. Isokinetic knee strength (extension, peak torque) decreased significantly in CON males, but was preserved in EX males. The EX group had significantly higher spine muscle strength after bed rest than the CON group. The cross-sectional area of spinal muscle at L4/5 level decreased significantly in the CON group but not in the EX group. Urinary n-telopeptide excretion, an index of bone resorption, was increased during bed rest in CON, but not in EX subjects. This suggests protection by LBNP exercise against the increase in bone resorption typically seen in simulated and actual microgravity. Significant changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and ribs were observed in CON subjects, but not in EX subjects. Conclusions: Our treadmill exercise protocol within LBNP plus a short period of post-exercise LBNP maintains orthostatic responses, upright exercise capacity and other important physiologic parameters during bed rest. These results document the efficacy of our apparatus and exercise protocol for maintaining physiologic structure and function during long-duration microgravity as simulated by 30 days of HDT bed rest. FUTURE PLANS: More sets of female identical twins are needed to reach significance. The LBNP exercise chamber will be redesigned for flight.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-7969 , BloastronaUliCS Workshop; Jan. 2003; Galveston, TX; United States
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 261 (1976), S. 333-335 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The enzyme that synthesises NA, dopamine-?-hydroxyl- ase, is secreted along with NA during sympathetic nerve activity6. Blood levels of dopamine-?-hydroxylase increase with age7. Vanillymandellc acid, a major metabolite of NA, is excreted in increasing amounts through childhood and adolescence8. ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 264 (1976), S. 656-658 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] NA is present in cerabrospinal fluid (CSF) in measurable quantities7?10 and the brain areas having the highest NA concentrations are located in close proximity to the CSF2. Levels of NA in CSF are affected by uptake into these brain areas since NA injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle is ...
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Conjugated catecholamines, deconjugation of catecholamines in cerbrospinal fluid or urine, the relationship of plasma norepinephrine to levels of severe stress, and catecholamine clearance rates are discussed.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: NAS 1.26:171654 , NASA-CR-171654
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The American journal of cardiology (ISSN 0002-9149); Volume 88; 11; 1335-7
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The autonomic nervous system drives variability in heart rate, vascular tone, cardiac ejection, and arterial pressure, but gender differences in autonomic regulation of the latter three parameters are not well documented. In addition to mean values, we used spectral analysis to calculate variability in arterial pressure, heart rate (R-R interval, RRI), stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance (TPR) and measured circulating levels of catecholamines and pancreatic polypeptide in two groups of 25 +/- 1.2-yr-old, healthy men and healthy follicular-phase women (40 total subjects, 10 men and 10 women per group). Group 1 subjects were studied supine, before and after beta- and muscarinic autonomic blockades, administered singly and together on separate days of study. Group 2 subjects were studied supine and drug free with the additional measurement of skin perfusion. In the unblocked state, we found that circulating levels of epinephrine and total spectral power of stroke volume, TPR, and skin perfusion ranged from two to six times greater in men than in women. The difference (men 〉 women) in spectral power of TPR was maintained after beta- and muscarinic blockades, suggesting that the greater oscillations of vascular resistance in men may be alpha-adrenergically mediated. Men exhibited muscarinic buffering of mean TPR whereas women exhibited beta-adrenergic buffering of mean TPR as well as TPR and heart rate oscillations. Women had a greater distribution of RRI power in the breathing frequency range and a less negative slope of ln RRI power vs. ln frequency, both indicators that parasympathetic stimuli were the dominant influence on women's heart rate variability. The results of our study suggest a predominance of sympathetic vascular regulation in men compared with a dominant parasympathetic influence on heart rate regulation in women.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (ISSN 8750-7587); Volume 91; 6; 2611-8
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: OBJECTIVE: The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance after short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence after long-duration spaceflight was unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that orthostatic intolerance is more severe after long-duration than after short-duration flight. METHODS: We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after long-duration (129-190 days) spaceflights and compared these data with data obtained during stand tests before and after previous short-duration missions. RESULTS: Five of the six astronauts studied became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights. Only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. We also compared the long-duration flight tilt test data to tilt test data from 20 different astronauts who flew on the short-duration Shuttle missions that delivered and recovered the astronauts to and from the Mir Space Station. Five of these 20 astronauts became presyncopal on landing day. Heart rate responses to tilt were no different between astronauts on long-duration flights and astronauts on short-duration flights, but long-duration subjects had lower stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than short-duration presyncopal subjects, suggesting a possible decrease in cardiac contractile function. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after the long flight but not after the short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. CONCLUSION: Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably with multiple contributing factors.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: Psychosomatic medicine (ISSN 0033-3174); Volume 63; 6; 865-73
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight duration on immune cells and their relationship to catecholamine levels. METHODS: Eleven astronauts who flew aboard five different US Space Shuttle flights ranging in duration from 4 to 16 days were studied before launch and after landing. RESULTS: Consistent with prior studies, spaceflight was associated with a significant increase in the number of circulating white blood cells (p 〈.01), including neutrophils (p 〈.01), monocytes (p 〈.05), CD3+CD4+ T-helper cells (p 〈.05), and CD19+ B cells (p 〈.01). In contrast, the number of CD3-CD16+56+ natural killer cells was decreased (p 〈.01). Plasma norepinephrine levels were increased at landing (p 〈.01) and were significantly correlated with the number of white blood cells (p 〈.01), neutrophils (p 〈.01), monocytes (p 〈.01), and B cells (p 〈.01). Astronauts who were in space for approximately 1 week showed a significantly larger increase on landing in plasma norepinephrine (p =.02) and epinephrine (p =.03) levels, as well as number of circulating CD3+CD4+ T-helper cells (p 〈.05) and CD3+CD8+ T-cytotoxic cells (p 〈.05) as compared with astronauts in space for approximately 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that the stress of spaceflight and landing may lead to a sympathetic nervous system-mediated redistribution of circulating leukocytes, an effect potentially attenuated after longer missions.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Psychosomatic medicine (ISSN 0033-3174); Volume 63; 6; 886-90
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