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  • 1
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    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
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  • 2
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    In:  IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 58, 8
    Publication Date: 2011-12-14
    Type: paper
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-8450
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we consider a class of optimal control problems with a cost on changing control, where the system dynamics are described by singular differential equations. Using a constraint transcription coupled with a local smoothing technique, a penalty function, and the control parametrization technique, an efficient computational method is developed for solving this optimal control problem sequentially. The convergence performance of the proposed method is also established. For illustration, this method is used to find the optimal feeding policy for a fed-batch fermentation process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Bamboo reinforced epoxy possesses reasonably good properties to waarrant its use as a structural material, and is fabricated by utilizing bamboo, an abundant material resource, in the technology of fibre composites. Literature on bamboo-plastics composites is rare. This work is an experimental study of unidirectional bamboo-epoxy laminates of varying laminae number, in which tensile, compressive, flexural and interlaminar shear properties are evaluated. Further, the disposition of bamboo fibre, the parenchymatous tissue, and the resin matrix under different loading conditions are examined. Our results show that the specific strength and specific modulus of bamboo-epoxy laminates are adequate, the former being 3 to 4 times that of mild steel. Its mechanical properties are generally comparable to those of ordinary glass-fibre composites. The fracture behaviour of bamboo-epoxy under different loading conditions were observed using both acoustic emission techniques and scanning electron microscopy. The fracture mode varied with load, the fracture mechanism being similar to glass and carbon reinforced composites. Microstructural analyses revealed that natural bamboo is eligibly a fibre composite in itself; its inclusion in a plastic matrix will help solve the problems of cracking due to desiccation and bioerosion caused by insect pests. Furthermore, the thickness and shape of the composite can be tailored during fabrication to meet specific requirements, thereby enabling a wide spectrum of applications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The crystallization behaviour of three amorphous alloys, Co50Ni25Si15B10, Ni50Co25Si15B10 and Ni50Co25P15B10, was studied by means of differential thermal analysis in conjunction with scanning transmission electron microscopy. Isochronal annealing showed a strong dependence of crystallization on scan rate over the range of 1.99 to 20.70 K min−1. At high Co/Ni ratios, a sequential two-stage crystallization process involving primary MS-I phase followed by MS-II phase precipitation was observed. At low Co/Ni ratios MS-I and MS-II crystallization were concurrent and inseparable. Replacement of the metalloid Si with P as the glass-former dramatically reduced the activation energy for crystallization as well as the crystallization temperature. A mechanistic understanding of these findings was pursued in light of TEM/STEM microanalysis
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9613
    Keywords: Stochastic dynamics ; mean field Ising model ; Langer's transition rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The microscopic transition rate is briefly calculated from quantum principles to derive the microscopic master equation. By introducing τp, the phenomenological time, and coarse graining Wp, the transition rate, a complete normalized phenomenological transition rate is obtained. The Langer form is then approximately obtained.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 74 (1999), S. 386-388 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Silicon tips used as field emitters have dimensions that are within the quantum confinement regime. Therefore they can be considered as freestanding silicon tips. In this letter, a photoluminescence spectrum of a 100×100 array of silicon tips was taken at 10 K. Narrow ultraviolet luminescence peaks were observed. Using the empirical pseudopotential homojunction model, it is demonstrated that these luminescence peaks come from energy levels arising from quantum confinement. By fitting the theoretical result to the experimental result, we conclude that the luminescence peaks come from Si quantum tips of about 20 Å in width and that they are covered by silicon dioxide. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 72 (1998), S. 2532-2534 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have investigated the influence of deposition parameters on stress generation in CNx (0.3〈x〈0.5) thin films deposited onto Si(001) substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering of C in pure N2 discharges. Film stress, σ, which in all cases is compressive, decreases with an increase in the N2 pressure, PN2, due to structural changes induced by the pressure-dependent variation in the average energy of particles bombarding the film during deposition. The film stress σ is also a function of the film growth temperature, Ts, and exhibits a maximum value of ∼5 GPa at 350 °C. Under these conditions, the films have a distorted microstructure consisting of a three-dimensional, primarily sp2 bonded, network. In contrast, films deposited at Ts〈200 °C with a low stress are amorphous. At 350 °C〈Ts〈600 °C, σ gradually decreases as Ts is increased and the microstructure becomes more graphitic and contains fewer defects. Nanoindentation measurements show that the films grown at 350 °C exhibit the highest hardness and elasticity. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Lithium-doped aluminum cluster anions, LiAln− were generated in a laser vaporization source and examined via mass spectrometry and anion photoelectron spectroscopy (n=3–15). The mass spectrum of the LiAln− series exhibits a local minimum in intensity at n=13. The electron affinity vs cluster size trend also shows a dip at n=13. Agreement is quite good between our measured electron affinity values and those calculated by Rao, Khanna, and Jena, suggesting that their predictions about the structure and bonding of LiAl13 and other clusters in this series are also largely valid. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of statistical physics 29 (1982), S. 317-327 
    ISSN: 1572-9613
    Keywords: bistable potentials ; Fokker-Planck equation ; exactly solved models
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We solve analytically the Fokker-Planck equation for a one-parameter family of symmetric, attractive, nonharmonic potentials which include double-well situations. The exact knowledge of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues allows us to fully discuss the transient behavior of the probability density. In particular, for the bistable potentials, we can give analytical expressions for the probability current over the working barrier and for the onset time which characterizes the transition from uni- to bimodal probability densities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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