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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2010. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Ocean Modelling 35 (2010): 119-133, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.08.003.
    Description: Four-dimensional Variational data assimilation (4DVAR) in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to produce a best-estimate analysis of ocean circulation in the New York Bight during spring 2006 by assimilating observations collected by a variety of instruments during an intensive field program. An incremental approach is applied in an overlapped cycling system with 3-day data assimilation window to adjust model initial conditions. The model-observation mismatch for all observed variables is reduced substantially. Comparisons between model forecast and independent observations show improved forecast skill for about 15 days for temperature and salinity, and 2 to 3 days for velocity. Tests assimilating only certain subsets of the data indicate that assimilating satellite sea surface temperature improves the forecast of surface and subsurface temperature but worsens the salinity forecast. Assimilating in situ temperature and salinity from gliders improves the salinity forecast but has little effect on temperature. Assimilating HF-radar surface current data improves the velocity forecast by 1-2 days yet worsens the forecast of subsurface temperature. During some time periods the convergence for velocity is poor as a result of the data assimilation system being unable to reduce errors in the applied winds because surface forcing is not among the control variables. This study demonstrates the capability of 4DVAR data assimilation system to reduce model-observation mismatch and improve forecasts in the coastal ocean, and highlights the value of accurate meteorological forcing.
    Description: This work was funded by National Science Foundation grant OCE-0238957.
    Keywords: Data assimilation ; 4DVAR ; ROMS ; Ocean prediction ; New York Bight ; River plume
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 28 (2011): 1065–1071, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-10-05030.1.
    Description: In this work a new methodology is proposed to correct the thermal lag error in data from unpumped CTD sensors installed on Slocum gliders. The advantage of the new approach is twofold: first, it takes into account the variable speed of the glider; and second, it can be applied to CTD profiles from an autonomous platform either with or without a reference cast. The proposed methodology finds values for four correction parameters that minimize the area between two temperature–salinity curves given by two CTD profiles. A field experiment with a Slocum glider and a standard CTD was conducted to test the method. Thermal lag–induced salinity error of about 0.3 psu was found and successfully corrected.
    Description: This work is part of the SINOCOP and GliderBal projects funded by CSIC and Govern Balear, respectively.
    Keywords: Data processingStommel ; In situ observations
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 120 (2015): 4324–4339, doi:10.1002/2014JC010547.
    Description: In the coastal ocean off the Northeast U.S., the sea surface temperature (SST) in the first half of 2012 was the highest on the record for the past roughly 150 years of recorded observations. The underlying dynamical processes responsible for this extreme event are examined using a numerical model, and the relative contributions of air-sea heat flux versus lateral ocean advective heat flux are quantified. The model accurately reproduces the observed vertical structure and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the thermohaline condition of the Gulf of Maine and the Middle Atlantic Bight waters during the anomalous warming period. Analysis of the model results show that the warming event was primarily driven by the anomalous air-sea heat flux, while the smaller contribution by the ocean advection worked against this flux by acting to cool the shelf. The anomalous air-sea heat flux exhibited a shelf-wide coherence, consistent with the shelf-wide warming pattern, while the ocean advective heat flux was dominated by localized, relatively smaller-scale processes. The anomalous cooling due to advection primarily resulted from the along-shelf heat flux divergence in the Gulf of Maine, while in the Middle Atlantic Bight the advective contribution from the along-shelf and cross-shelf heat flux divergences was comparable. The modeling results confirm the conclusion of the recent analysis of in situ data by Chen et al. (2014a) that the changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation in the winter of 2011–2012 primarily caused the extreme warm anomaly in the spring of 2012. The effect of along-shelf or cross-shelf ocean advection on the warm anomalies from either the Scotian Shelf or adjacent continental slope was secondary.
    Description: K.C. was supported by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Postdoctoral Scholar program, the Coastal Ocean Institute, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) under grant OCE-1435602. G.G.G. was supported by NSF grants OCE-1435602 and OCE-1129125. Y.-O.K. was supported by the NSF grant OCE-1435602. W.G.Z. was supported by the NSF grant OCE-1129125.
    Description: 2015-12-15
    Keywords: Extreme temperature ; Heat budget ; Northeast U.S. coastal ocean ; Numerical modeling ; Air-sea interaction ; Climate change
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: Author Posting. © The Oceanography Society, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of The Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 31, no. 1 (2018): 60–70, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2018.110.
    Description: Although the continental shelf and slope south of New England have been the subject of recent studies that address decadal-scale warming and interannual variability of water mass properties, it is not well understood how these changes affect shelf-break exchange processes. In recent years, observations of anomalous shelf and slope conditions obtained from the Ocean Observatories Initiative Pioneer Array and other regional observing programs suggest that onshore intrusions of warm, salty waters are becoming more prevalent. Mean cross-shelf transects constructed from Pioneer Array glider observations collected from April 2014 through December 2016 indicate that slope waters have been warmer and saltier. We examine shelf-break exchange events and anomalous onshore intrusions of warm, salty water associated with warm core rings located near the shelf break in spring 2014 and winter 2017 using observations from the Pioneer Array and other sources. We also describe an additional cross-shelf intrusion of ring water in September 2014 to demonstrate that the occurrence of high-salinity waters extending across the continental shelf is rare. Observations from the Pioneer Array and other sources show warm core ring and Gulf Stream water masses intrude onto the continental shelf more frequently and penetrate further onshore than in previous decades.
    Description: GG, WZ, RT, and MD were supported by the National Science Foundation under grant OCE-1657853. WZ was also supported by grant OCE-1634965. JP is grateful for the support of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Summer Student Fellow Program. AMM was supported by a grant from the MacArthur Foundation. GG and AMM were also supported by a grant from the van Beuren Charitable Foundation for collection and analysis of hydrographic data collected by the CFRF Shelf Research Fleet.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 118 (2013): 517–535, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20068.
    Description: A two-dimensional (cross-shelf) numerical model of the mean seasonal circulation offshore of southern New England predicts upwelling at the shelfbreak front. Expected ramifications of this upwelling include enhancement of nutrient supply, phytoplankton biomass, and productivity. However, seasonal climatologies of chlorophyll based on both in situ data and satellite observations show no mean enhancement at the front. We investigate this apparent discrepancy with a four-component planktonic ecosystem model coupled to the two-dimensional physical model. Nutrient fields are restored to climatological values at depth, and upper ocean values evolve freely according to physical and biological forcing. Vertical diffusivity is based on seasonally averaged surface and bottom mixed layer depths compiled from in situ observations. The model reproduces the general pattern of the observed cross-shelf and seasonal variations of the chlorophyll distribution. It predicts a local enhancement of phytoplankton productivity at the shelfbreak in spring and summer as a result of the persistently upwelled nutrient-rich slope water. In the model, zooplankton grazing prevents accumulation of phytoplankton biomass at the site of the upwelling. The predicted enhancement of primary productivity (but not phytoplankton biomass) at the shelfbreak constitutes a hypothesis that could be tested in the future with suitable measurements from regional long-term observatories, such as the Ocean Observatories Initiative Pioneer Array.
    Description: WGZ was supported by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) postdoctoral scholarship program, the WHOI Coastal Ocean Institute, and the National Science Foundation through grant OCE-1129125. DJM and GGG were supported by ONR grant N00014-06-1-0739. DJM gratefully acknowledges support of WHOI’s H. W. Jannasch Chair.
    Description: 2013-07-31
    Keywords: Shelfbreak front ; Biological productivity ; NPZD modeling ; Zooplankton grazing ; Shelf break upwelling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 44 (2014): 834-849, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-0179.1.
    Description: A hydrostatic numerical model with alongshore-uniform barotropic M2 tidal boundary forcing and idealized shelfbreak canyon bathymetries is used to study internal-tide generation and onshore propagation. A control simulation with Mid-Atlantic Bight representative bathymetry is supported by other simulations that serve to identify specific processes. The canyons and adjacent slopes are transcritical in steepness with respect to M2 internal wave characteristics. Although the various canyons are symmetrical in structure, barotropic-to-baroclinic energy conversion rates Cυ are typically asymmetrical within them. The resulting onshore-propagating internal waves are the strongest along beams in the horizontal plane, with the stronger beam in the control simulation lying on the side with higher Cυ. Analysis of the simulation results suggests that the cross-canyon asymmetrical Cυ distributions are caused by multiple-scattering effects on one canyon side slope, because the phase variation in the spatially distributed internal-tide sources, governed by variations in the orientation of the bathymetry gradient vector, allows resonant internal-tide generation. A less complex, semianalytical, modal internal wave propagation model with sources placed along the critical-slope locus (where the M2 internal wave characteristic is tangent to the seabed) and variable source phasing is used to diagnose the physics of the horizontal beams of onshore internal wave radiation. Model analysis explains how the cross-canyon phase and amplitude variations in the locally generated internal tides affect parameters of the internal-tide beams. Under the assumption that strong internal tides on continental shelves evolve to include nonlinear wave trains, the asymmetrical internal-tide generation and beam radiation effects may lead to nonlinear internal waves and enhanced mixing occurring preferentially on one side of shelfbreak canyons, in the absence of other influencing factors.
    Description: All three authors were supported by Office of Naval Research (ONR) Grant N00014-11-1-0701. WGZ was additionally supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant OCE-1154575, and TFD was additionally supported by NSF Grant OCE-1060430.
    Description: 2014-09-01
    Keywords: Circulation/ Dynamics ; Baroclinic flows ; Internal waves ; Ocean circulation ; Topographic effects ; Waves, oceanic ; Models and modeling ; Numerical analysis/modeling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 44 (2014): 1563–1581, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-0188.1.
    Description: This study examines the dispersal of dense water formed in an idealized coastal polynya on a sloping shelf in the absence of ambient circulation and stratification. Both numerical and laboratory experiments reveal two separate bottom pathways for the dense water: an offshore plume moving downslope into deeper ambient water and a coastal current flowing in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation. Scaling analysis shows that the velocity of the offshore plume is proportional not only to the reduced gravity, bottom slope, and inverse of the Coriolis parameter, but also to the ratio of the dense water depth to total water depth. The dense water coastal current is generated by the along-shelf baroclinic pressure gradient. Its dynamics can be separated into two stages: (i) near the source region, where viscous terms are negligible, its speed is proportional to the reduced gravity wave speed and (ii) in the far field, where bottom drag becomes important and balances the pressure gradient, the velocity is proportional to Hc[g′/(LCd)]1/2 in which Hc is the water depth at the coast, g′ the reduced gravity, Cd the quadratic bottom drag coefficient, and L the along-shelf span of the baroclinic pressure gradient. The velocity scalings are verified using numerical and laboratory sensitivity experiments. The numerical simulations suggest that only 3%–23% of the dense water enters the coastal pathway, and the percentage depends highly on the ratio of the velocities of the offshore and coastal plumes. This makes the velocity ratio potentially useful for observational studies to assess the amount of dense water formed in coastal polynyas.
    Description: WGZ was sponsored by the WHOI Arctic Research Initiative program. CC received support from the National Science Foundation Project OCE-1130008.
    Description: 2014-12-01
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119 (2014): 7205–7228, doi:10.1002/2014JC010206.
    Description: The summertime eastward jet (SEJ) located around 12°N, 110°E–113°E, as the offshore extension of the Vietnam coastal current, is an important feature of the South China Sea (SCS) surface circulation in boreal summer. Analysis of satellite-derived sea level and sea surface wind data during 1992–2012 reveals pronounced interannual variations in its surface strength (SSEJ) and latitudinal position (YSEJ). In most of these years, the JAS (July, August, and September)-mean SSEJ fluctuates between 0.17 and 0.55 m s−1, while YSEJ shifts between 10.7°N and 14.3°N. These variations of the SEJ are predominantly contributed from the geostrophic current component that is linked to a meridional dipole pattern of sea level variations. This sea level dipole pattern is primarily induced by local wind changes within the SCS associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Enhanced (weakened) southwest monsoon at the developing (decaying) stage of an El Niño event causes a stronger (weaker) SEJ located south (north) of its mean position. Remote wind forcing from the tropical Pacific can also affect the sea level in the SCS via energy transmission through the Philippine archipelago, but its effect on the SEJ is small. The impact of the oceanic internal variability, such as eddy-current interaction, is assessed using an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). Such impact can lead to considerable year-to-year changes of sea level and the SEJ, equivalent to ∼20% of the observed variation. This implies the complexity and prediction difficulty of the upper ocean circulation in this region.
    Description: This research was supported by the ONR grant N00014-12-1-03-23 and the NSF CAREER Award 0847605.
    Description: 2015-04-27
    Keywords: South China Sea ; Sea level ; Wind forcing ; ENSO
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 42 (2015): 7687–7695, doi:10.1002/2015GL065530.
    Description: Onshore intrusions of offshore waters onto the Mid-Atlantic Bight shelf can greatly affect shelf circulation, biogeochemistry, and fisheries. Previous studies have concentrated on onshore intrusions of slope water. Here we present a direct intrusion of Gulf Stream warm-core ring water onto the shelf representing a previously unknown exchange process at the shelfbreak. Impingement of warm-core rings at the shelfbreak generates along-isobath intrusions that grow like Pinocchio's nose, extending hundreds of kilometers to the southwest. By combining satellite and Ocean Observatory Initiative Pioneer Array data and idealized numerical simulations, we discover that the intrusion results from topographically induced vorticity variation of the ring water, rather than from entrainment of the shelfbreak frontal jet. This intrusion of the Gulf Stream ring water has important biogeochemical implications and could facilitate migration of marine species across the shelfbreak barrier and transport low-nutrient surface Gulf Stream ring water to the otherwise productive shelfbreak region.
    Description: National Science Foundation Grant Number: OCE-1129125
    Keywords: Mid-Atlantic Bight ; Cross-shelf exchange ; Onshore intrusion ; Warm-core ring ; OOI Pioneer Array ; Vorticity dynamics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-04-15
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 123(11), (2018): 7795-7818. doi: 10.1029/2018JC013794.
    Description: This work studies the subduction of the shelf water along the onshore edge of a warm‐core ring that impinges on the edge of the Mid‐Atlantic Bight continental shelf. The dynamical analysis is based on observations by satellites and from the Ocean Observatories Initiative Pioneer Array observatory as well as idealized numerical model simulations. They together show that frontogenesis‐induced submesoscale frontal subduction with order‐one Rossby and Froude numbers occurs on the onshore edge of the ring. The subduction flow results from the onshore migration of the warm‐core ring that intensifies the density front on the interface of the ring and shelf waters. The subduction is a part of the cross‐front secondary circulation trying to relax the intensifying density front. The dramatically different physical and biogeochemical properties of the ring and shelf waters provide a great opportunity to visualize the subduction phenomenon. Entrained by the ring‐edge current, the subducted shelf water is subsequently transported offshore below a surface layer of ring water and alongside of the surface‐visible shelf‐water streamer. It explains the historical observations of isolated subsurface packets of shelf water along the ring periphery in the slope sea. Model‐based estimate suggests that this type of subduction‐associated subsurface cross‐shelfbreak transport of the shelf water could be substantial relative to other major forms of shelfbreak water exchange. This study also proposes that outward spreading of the ring‐edge front by the frontal subduction may facilitate entrainment of the shelf water by the ring‐edge current and enhances the shelf‐water streamer transport at the shelf edge.
    Description: W. G. Z. was supported by the National Science Foundation under grants OCE‐1657853, OCE‐1657803, and OCE 1634965. JP is grateful for the support of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Summer Student Fellow Program in 2016 and 2017. W. G. Z. thanks Kenneth Brink, Glen Gawarkiewicz, Rocky Geyer, Steven Lentz, Dennis McGillicuddy, Robert Todd, and John Trowbridge for helpful discussions during the course of the study or useful comments on earlier versions of the manuscript. The satellite sea surface temperature data were obtained from the University of Delaware Ocean Exploration, Remote Sensing, Biogeography Lab (led by Matthew Oliver), through the Mid‐Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) data server (http://tds.maracoos.org/thredds/catalog.html). The OOI Pioneer Array mooring and glider data presented in this paper were downloaded from the National Science Foundation OOI data portal (http://ooinet.oceanobservatories.org) in July–August 2016.
    Description: 2019-04-15
    Keywords: frontal subduction ; warm‐core ring ; Mid‐Atlantic Bight ; shelf‐water streamer ; cross‐shelf exchange ; OOI Pioneer Array
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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