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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words RFLP markers ; Fine-mapping ; Blast resistance ; Pyramiding ; Marker-assisted selection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Three major genes (Pi1, Piz-5 and Pita) for blast resistance on chromosomes 11, 6 and 12, respectively, were fine-mapped and closely linked RFLP markers identified. New markers for Pi1 and Pita were found that were flanking the genes. The three genes were pyramided using RFLP markers. A PCR-based SAP (sequence amplified polymorphism) marker was used to identify Piz-5 in the segregating population. The plants carrying the two- and three-gene combinations that were tested for resistance to leaf blast in the Philippines and India indicated that combinations including Piz-5 have enhanced resistance than when it is present alone. The genes from the pyramided lines are at present being deployed into agronomically superior ricevarieties by marker-aided selection (MAS).
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Disease resistance ; Rice blast ; RFLPs ; Recombinant inbred lines ; Pre-isogenic lines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To increase the available set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for blast-resistance in rice, we have developed a general method for establishing NILs from populations of fixed recombinants that have been used for gene mapping. We demonstrated the application of this method by the selection of lines carrying genes from the rice cultivar Moroberekan. Moroberekan is a West African japonica cultivar that is considered to have durable resistance to rice blast. Multiple genes from Moroberekan conferring complete and partial resistance to blast have previously been mapped using a recombinant inbred (RI) population derived from a cross between Moroberekan and the highly and broadly susceptible indica cultivar CO39. To analyze individual blast-resistance genes, it is desirable to transfer them individually into a susceptible genetic background. This RI population, and the associated data sets on blast reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotypes, were used for selection of lines likely to carry individual blast-resistance genes and a minimum number of chromosomal segments from Moroberekan. Because skewed segregation in the RI population favored CO39 (indica) alleles, resistant lines carrying 8.7–17.5% of Moroberekan alleles (the proportion expected after two or three backcrosses) could be selected. We chose three RI lines carrying different complete resistance genes to blast and two RI lines carrying partial resistance genes to blast as potential parents for the development of NILs. These lines were subjected to genetic analysis, which allowed clarification of some issues that could not be resolved during the initial gene-mapping study.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Stable resistance ; Doubled haploids ; Pyricularia grisea ; Breeding ; Categorical data analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Crosses were made between Fanny (highly susceptible to blast) and 11 cultivars differing in blast resistance. Using the pedigree method (PM) segregating generations were evaluated and selected for blast resistance. Via anther culture (AC), doubled-haploids were obtained from F1 plants and from F2 blast-susceptible plants. Pedigree and anther culture-derived lines were planted together and evaluated for blast resistance under rainfed conditions at the Santa Rosa Experiment Station, Villavicencio, Colombia. The principal objective was to compare PM and AC in terms of their efficiency in producing rice lines resistant to blast. Results of a stratified analysis showed an association between method and blast resistance. Results of the logit-model analysis showed that AC produced a significantly (P=0.0001) higher proportion of lines with initial blast resistance (leaf- and neck-blast reaction ≤4) than did PM across all cross types. Stable blast resistance was assessed based on field performance over 3 years. AC was superior to PM in generating stable resistance for only some cross types. Consequently, with a few exceptions, AC can be used as effectively as PM to develop rice cultivars resistant to blast, with savings in time and labor. Additionally, blast-resistant lines were obtained either by the pedigree method or by anther culture from crosses between blast-susceptible cultivars (Fanny/CICA4 and Fanny/Colombial). This excludes somaclonal variation as a possible mechanism responsible for this resistance and suggests that a recombination of minor genes could have occurred and was fixed through either method. However, the stability of the resistance was greater in pedigree-derived lines. The implications of these findings for rice blast-resistance breeding are discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Disease resistance ; Rice blast ; RFLPs ; Recombinant inbred lines ; Pre-isogenic lines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To increase the available set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for blast-resistance in rice, we have developed a general method for establishing NILs from populations of fixed recombinants that have been used for gene mapping. We demonstrated the application of this method by the selection of lines carrying genes from the rice cultivar Moroberekan. Moroberekan is a West African japonica cultivar that is considered to have durable resistance to rice blast. Multiple genes from Moroberekan conferring complete and partial resistance to blast have previously been mapped using a recombinant inbred (RI) population derived from a cross between Moroberekan and the highly and broadly susceptible indica cultivar CO39. To analyze individual blast-resistance genes, it is desirable to transfer them individually into a susceptible genetic background. This RI population, and the associated data sets on blast reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotypes, were used for selection of lines likely to carry individual blast-resistance genes and a minimum number of chromosomal segments from Moroberekan. Because skewed segregation in the RI population favored CO39 (indica) alleles, resistant lines carrying 8.7–17.5% of Moroberekan alleles (the proportion expected after two or three backcrosses) could be selected. We chose three RI lines carrying different complete resistance genes to blast and two RI lines carrying partial resistance genes to blast as potential parents for the development of NILs. These lines were subjected to genetic analysis, which allowed clarification of some issues that could not be resolved during the initial gene-mapping study.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words  Stable resistance  ;  Doubled haploids  ; Pyricularia grisea  ;  Breeding  ;  Categorical data analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract   Crosses were made between Fanny (highly susceptible to blast) and 11 cultivars differing in blast resistance. Using the pedigree method (PM) segregating generations were evaluated and selected for blast resistance. Via anther culture (AC), doubled-haploids were obtained from F1 plants and from F2 blast-susceptible plants. Pedigree and anther culture-derived lines were planted together and evaluated for blast resistance under rainfed conditions at the Santa Rosa Experiment Station, Villavicencio, Colombia. The principal objective was to compare PM and AC in terms of their efficiency in producing rice lines resistant to blast. Results of a stratified analysis showed an association between method and blast resistance. Results of the logit-model analysis showed that AC produced a significantly (P=0.0001) higher proportion of lines with initial blast resistance (leaf- and neck-blast reaction ≤4) than did PM across all cross types. Stable blast resistance was assessed based on field performance over 3 years. AC was superior to PM in generating stable resistance for only some cross types. Consequently, with a few exceptions, AC can be used as effectively as PM to develop rice cultivars resistant to blast, with savings in time and labor. Additionally, blast-resistant lines were obtained either by the pedigree method or by anther culture from crosses between blast-susceptible cultivars (Fanny/CICA4 and Fanny/Colombia1). This excludes somaclonal variation as a possible mechanism responsible for this resistance and suggests that a recombination of minor genes could have occurred and was fixed through either method. However, the stability of the resistance was greater in pedigree-derived lines. The implications of these findings for rice blast-resistance breeding are discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Aluminum toxicity ; Diallel analysis ; Genetics ; Rice ; Variability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A study was undertaken to investigate the variability among lowland rice cultivars and the mode of gene action of aluminum (Al) toxicity tolerance in rice. Pregerminated seeds were grown in a nutrient solution containing 30 ppm Al and in normal nutrient solution, and relative root length (RRL) was determined at the 14-day-old stage to characterize genotypes for tolerance. Sixty-two traditional rice cultivars grown on lowland acid sulfate soil areas of Asia and West Africa were tested. Tolerant varieties ‘Azucena’, ‘IRAT104’, and ‘Moroberekan’, moderately sensitive ‘IR29’ and ‘IR43’, and sensitive ‘IR45’ and ‘IR1552’ were used to investigate the genetics of tolerance by diallel analysis. Of the 62 cultivars tested, only 3 were found to be sensitive to A l toxicity. Among the tolerant cultivars identified, 11 (‘Siyam Kuning’, ‘Gudabang Putih’, ‘Siyam’, ‘Lemo’, ‘Khao Daeng’, ‘Siyamhalus’, ‘Bjm-12’, ‘Ketan’, ‘Seribu Gantang’, ‘Bayer Raden Rati’, and ‘Padi Kanji’) were found to possess higher levels of tolerance than the improved tolerant upland cultivar ‘IRAT104’. Diallel analysis revealed that high RRL is governed by both additive and dominance effects with a preponderance of additive effects. The trait exhibited partial dominance, and one group of genes was detected. Heritability was high, and environmenal effects were low. Findings suggest that when breeding for A1 toxicity tolerance, selection can be made in early generations. The pedigree method of breeding would be suitable. Combining ability analysis revealed the importance of both general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) in the genetics of A1 toxicity tolerance in rice. GCA was more prevalent than SCA. Tolerant parens ‘Azucena’, ‘IRAT104’, and ‘Moroberekan’ were the best general combiners. The presence of reciprocal effects among crosses suggested the proper choice of parents in hybridization programs. Results indicated that ‘Azucena’, ‘IRAT 104’, and ‘Moroberekan’ should be used as the female in crosses for A1 toxicity tolerance.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: disease resistance screening ; leaf cuticle ; rice blast ; rice blast disease resistance ; upland rice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Upland rice cultivars were evaluated in the greenhouse for susceptibility to the rice blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea Sacc., on two upland soils from the Philippines previously considered to be “blast conducive” and “blast non-conducive”. Under monocyclic inoculation tests plants grown in conducive soil showed significantly greater lesion development than plants of the same cultivar grown in non-conducive soil: cultivars considered to be susceptible to the isolates used showed increased number of susceptible-type lesions; resistant cultivars showed increased number of hypersensitive resistant-type lesions. A similar effect was observed under polycyclic tests where several generations of the pathogen were allowed to develop on the test plants. Dilution of conducive soil with non-conducive soil resulted in a corresponding reduction of disease severity, although this was most pronounced on resistant cultivars. Removal of leaf epicuticular waxes (LEW) using organic solvents increased the number of resistant-type lesions on resistant cultivars grown in both soils following inoculation. Susceptible plants were not suitable for quantifying the relative blast conduciveness of a soil because of the extreme environmental sensitivity of the bioassay and the tendency of lesions to coalesce. Comparing numbers of resistant-type lesions on leaves of plants stripped of LEW and inoculated with an incompatible P. grisea isolate among plants grown in different soils proved to be a satisfactory means of distinguishing the relative blast conduciveness of soils under controlled conditions. This method was field tested in eastern India and results corroborated farmer assessment of which soils were blast conducive. Using incompatible isolate-cultivar combinations and LEW-free leaves is proposed as a simple bioassay for assessing blast conduciveness of soils and should prove useful in regional characterization of rice blast risk.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-9893
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Abstract The lowland rice-producing areas of the world may be classified first by water regime: those with a reliable and controlled external supply of water and a drainage system, theirrigated ricelands, and those depending solely on rainfall and runoff, therainfed lowlands. The latter are diverse and range from drought-prone lands to those subjected to flooding in excess of several meters during the growing season. Rice production in these areas hasn't really benefited from the technological advances that were so successful for irrigated rice, yet hundreds of millions of Asia's poorest people depend upon the rainfed lowlands for their livelihood. This paper presents a retionale for devoting resources to research for the rainfed environments of Asia, and examines the institutional context and the key constraints and opportunities for intervention. The research strategies directed towards increasing sustainable productivity in these areas are presented, including the unique challenges presented by environmental heterogeneity and variability.
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