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  • 1
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Origins ; DNA replication ; Human ; In vitro replication assay ; Library screening
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We demonstrate a method for the isolation of autonomously replicating sequences from pools of clones obtained from genomic DNA libraries constructed using affinity purification of cruciform DNA. The selection of autonomously replicating sequences was based on their differential ability to replicate as episomes after transfection of pools of plasmid clones into human HeLa cells. Two separate libraries containing affinity-purified cruciform DNA were used, one prepared from DNA of log phase primary human genital fibroblasts and the other prepared from DNA of log phase SW48 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Representative samples of the entire phage libraries were converted to phagemid clones by filamentous helper phage-mediated mass excision to produce pBluescript libraries in Escherichia coli. Clones were grown up individually and the bacteria pooled into groups of 48 for recovery of plasmid DNA. Plasmid pools of 48 independent clones (120 μg total) were then transfected by calcium phosphate coprecipitation onto log phase HeLa cells, which were allowed to grow for 3 days before recovery of plasmid by Hirt lysis. The recovery of plasmid from each transfection was estimated to range from 10 to 60 ng. DpnI digestion was then used to digest plasmids which had not been replicated and therefore retained a bacterial methylation pattern which was sensitive to digestion. We estimated from agarose electrophesis gels that 40–200 pg of recovered plasmid DNA per transfected pool of DNA was resistant to DpnI and therefore was capable of transforming competent E. coli cells. The DpnI-resistant fraction yielded from one to seven independent clones from each pool, with genomic DNA inserts ranging in size from 0.35 to 3.4 kb. The fidelity of the procedure was demonstrated by performing duplicate transfections from the same pool of plasmid DNA, and identifying bands which were apparently common between duplicate transfections by size and sequence analysis. A second method of mass screening, using an in vitro DNA replication assay instead of transfections, resulted in similar yields and led to the isolation of an overlapping subset of selected clones.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Biochemistry 33 (1994), S. 14185-14196 
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: ors ; replication origin ; replication proteins ; purification ; HeLa cells ; in vitro replication ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Ors (origin enriched sequence) 8 is a mammalian autonomously replicating DNA sequence previously isolated by extrusion of nascent monkey (CV-1) DNA in early S phase. A 186 bp fragment of ors 8 has been identified as the minimal sequence required for origin function, since upon its deletion the in vivo and in vitro replication activity of this ors is abolished. We have fractionated total HeLa cell extracts on a DEAE-Sephadex and then on a Affi-Gel Heparin column and identified a protein fraction that interacts with the 186 bp fragment of ors 8 in a specific manner. The same fraction is able to support the in vitro replication of ors 8 plasmid. The ors binding activity (OBA) present in this fraction sediments at approximately 150 kDa in a glycerol gradient. Band-shift elution experiments of the specific protein-DNA complex detect by silver-staining predominantly two protein bands with molecular weights of 146 kDa and 154 kDa, respectively. The fraction containing the OBA is also enriched for polymerases α and δ, topoisomerase II, and replication protein A, (RP-A).
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: in vitro DNA replication ; mammalian ; doxorubicin ; araC ; progesterone ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: DNA replication machinery is an important target for chemotherapeutic drugs. We have used an in vitro system to study the effect of drugs on mammalian DNA replication, either by direct interaction with the DNA structure or with replication proteins and machinery. The anthracycline doxorubicin (Dox) showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on DNA replication, whether incubated with HeLa cell extracts or with DNA and nucleotides. Earliest-labeled fragment analysis revealed that inhibition of replication began within the origin-containing fragment in both control and Dox-containing reactions in vitro. AraC, a nucleoside analog, had no significant effect on DNA synthesis. In contrast, araCTP was able to inhibit DNA replication in vitro. Since metabolism is diminished in this in vitro system, the degree of phosphorylation of araC was apparently low. Progesterone showed an increase in nucleotide incorporation (sensitive to BuPdGTP inhibition of replication-specific polymerases α and δ) after preincubation with HeLa cell extracts, although progesterone receptors were not detectable in the HeLa cell extracts. In addition, we observed an inhibition in DNA replication when progesterone was preincubated with DNA and nucleotides. These results suggest that progesterone may have a mechanism of action that is different from any known to be mediated through progesterone receptors. In conclusion, these results indicate that this mammalian in vitro replication system will be useful for the study of mechanisms and design of therapeutic drugs that inhibit mammalian DNA replication. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: in vitro replication ; ors8 ; Oct-1 transcription factor ; POU domain ; mammalian autonomously replicating DNA sequence ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: A 186-base pair fragment of ors8, a mammalian autonomously replicating DNA sequence isolated by extrusion of nascent monkey DNA in early S phase, has previously been identified as the minimal sequence required for replication function in vitro and in vivo. This 186-base pair fragment contains, among other sequence characteristics, an imperfect consensus binding site for the ubiquitous transcription factor Oct-1. We have investigated the role of Oct-1 protein in the in vitro replication of this mammalian origin. Depletion of the endogenous Oct-1 protein, by inclusion of an oligonucleotide comprising the Oct-1 binding site, inhibited the in vitro replication of p186 to approximately 15-20% of the control, whereas a mutated Oct-1 and a nonspecific oligonucleotide had no effect. Furthermore, immunodepletion of the Oct-1 protein from the HeLa cell extracts by addition of an anti-POU antibody to the in vitro replication reactioninhibited p186 replication to 25% of control levels. This inhibition of replication could be partially reversed to 50-65% of control levels, a two- to threefold increase, upon the addition of exogenous Oct-1 POU domain protein.Site-directed mutagenesis of the octamer binding site in p186 resulted in a mutant clone, p186-MutOct, which abolished Oct-1 binding but was still able to replicate as efficiently as the wild-type p186. The results suggest that Oct-1 protein is an enhancing component in the in vitro replication of p186 but that its effect on replication is not caused through direct binding to the octamer motif. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:309-327, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: ors ; replication origin ; minimal origin ; deletion analysis ; episomal replication ; in vitro replication ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We have generated a panel of deletion mutants of ors8 (483 bp), a mammalian autonomously replicating DNA sequence, previously isolated by extrusion of nascent monkey (CV-1) DNA from replication bubbles active at the onset of S phase. The deletion mutants were tested for replication function by the DpnI resistance assay, in vivo, after transfection into HeLa cells, and in vitro. An internal fragment of 186-bp that is required for autonomous replication function of ors8 was identified. This fragment, when subcloned into pBR322 and similarly tested, was capable of autonomous replication in vivo and in vitro. The 186-bp fragment contains several repeated sequence motifs, such as the ATTA and ATTTAT motifs, occurring three and five times, respectively, the sequences TAGG and TAGA, occurring three and seven times, respectively, two 5′-ATT-3′ repeats, a 44-bp imperfect inverted repeat (IR) sequence, and an imperfect consensus binding element for the transcription factor Oct-1. A measurable sequence-directed DNA curvature was also detected, coinciding with the AT-rich regions of the 186-bp fragment.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: deletion mutants ; ors12 ; replication activity ; mammalian origin ; autonomous replication ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We have generated a panel of deletion mutants of ors12 (812-bp), a mammalian origin of DNA replication previously isolated by nascent strand extrusion from early replicating African Green monkey (CV-1) DNA. The deletion mutants were tested for their replication activity in vivo by the bromodeoxyuridine substitution assay, after transfection into HeLa cells, and in vitro by the DpnI resistance assay, using extracts from HeLa cells. We identified a 215-bp internal fragment as essential for the autonomous replication activity of ors12. When subcloned into the vector pML2 and similarly tested, this subfragment was capable of autonomous replication in vivo and in vitro. Several repeated sequence motifs are present in this 215-bp fragment, such as TGGG(A) and G(A)AG (repeated four times each); TTTC, AGG, and CTTA (repeated 3 times each); the motifs CACACA and CTCTCT, and two imperfect inverted repeats, 22 and 16 bp long, respectively. The overall sequence of the 215-bp fragment is G/C-rich (50.2%), by comparison to the 186-bp (33.5% G/C-rich) minimal sequence required for the autonomous replication activity of ors8, another functional ors that was similarly isolated and characterized. J. Cell. Biochem. 66:87-97, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: inverted repeats ; cruciform DNA ; secondary structure ; DNA replication ; cruciform binding proteins ; structure-specific recognition ; protein-DNA interactions ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Inverted repeats occur nonrandomly in the DNA of most organisms. Stem-loops and cruciforms can form from inverted repeats. Such structures have been detected in pro- and eukaryotes. They may affect the supercoiling degree of the DNA, the positioning of nucleosomes, the formation of other secondary structures of DNA, or directly interact with proteins. Inverted repeats, stem-loops, and cruciforms are present at the replication origins of phage, plasmids, mitochondria, eukaryotic viruses, and mammalian cells. Experiments with anti-cruciform antibodies suggest that formation and stabilization of cruciforms at particular mammalian origins may be associated with initiation of DNA replication. Many proteins have been shown to interact with cruciforms, recognizing features like DNA crossovers, four-way junctions, and curved/bent DNA of specific angles. A human cruciform binding protein (CBP) displays a novel type of interaction with cruciforms and may be linked to initiation of DNA replication. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: steroids ; DNA replication ; carcinogenesis ; proliferation ; cell-free system ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: There is now convincing evidence associating estrogens with an increased risk of some cancers. However, the absence of a complete correlation between estrogen receptor binding and the biological activity of these estrogens has suggested the possibility of other mechanisms of action. The effect on DNA replication of several hormones that are putatively involved in breast cancer was tested at a physiological concentration. The studies were conducted in a HeLa cell-free system by using a plasmid containing a specific mammalian origin of replication (DHFR oriβ〈0R) as template DNA. A series of related steroids produced an entire range of activity from enhancement to inhibition of in vitro DNA replication. These studies indicate a new possible target, which may help to better understand the effect of these hormones in breast cancer. Furthermore, the results show that this in vitro DNA replication system provides an evaluative assay for the effects of compounds on hormone-responsive cancers independent of some hormone receptors. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:323-329, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-6849
    Keywords: conformation ; replication ; S-phase chromosomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Recent statistical analysis of the folding of G0/G1 chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed development of a random walk/giant loop model of chromosome structure. According to this model there are two levels of organization of G0/G1 chromosome fibres. On the first level, the fibres are arranged in giant loops several Mbp in size, and within each loop the fibres are randomly folded. On the second level, the loop attachment sites form a chromosome backbone that also shows random folding. Newly replicated segments of mammalian chromosomes may be directly visualized at high resolution in S-phase nuclei using immunofluorescent methods and appear as worm-like fibres. In our earlier study, we analysed conformation of the fibres in human cells blocked for 16 h at the G1/S boundary with 5- fluorodeoxyuridine (FdU) and then released into S-phase by the addition of a DNA prec ursor. However, long treatment of cells with FdU induces very short replicons and may promote apoptosis. In this study we analysed conformation of the fibres in normally proliferating human cells that had not been blocked with FdU for a long time. It has been found that replicated chromosome fibres visualized just after 2 h of incubation of the cells with a non-radioactively labelled DNA precursor behave as flexible polymer chains without major constraints, and that their local conformation in the range of several microns of their contour length may be considered as random. Confocal analysis of human X chromosomes visualized in HeLa cells using FISH with a specific painting probe shows that in S-phase the chromosomes occupy distinct nuclear territories and their apparent size does not differ from that in non-S-phase cells. This observation indicates that the second level of chromosome organization also exists in S-phase chromosomes. It appears, theref ore, that the random walk/giant loop model developed earlier for G0/G1 chromosomes is also valid for S-phase chromosomes.
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