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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: This study focused on zooplankton structure, biodiversity, relationship between a biotic parameters and zooplankton variation, and trophy state of the Persian Gulf Martyrs Lake (Chitgar-Tehran). Based on the lake condition, samples were collected by Juday net at the 5 stations between 2013 and 2014. This study identified 36 zooplankton taxa comprised of Arthropoda (6 genus), Protozoa (6 genus), Rotatoria (20 genus), Nematoda (1 genus), Gastrotricha (2 genus) and Oligochaeta (1 genus). Furthermore, the first record of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sp. in Iran, with size group of 15-20 mm in diameter in September is reported in the Chitgar lake. The Rotatoria abundance average was measured 61 ±18 ind.l-1 in the lake. The Nematoda, Gastrotricha and Oligochaeta taxa were measured the lowest abundance (〈 1 ind.l-1 ) in this study. The annual average zooplankton abundance was measured as 72±18 ind.l-1 . The PCA displayed, the Rotatoria Trichocerca sp. and Polyarthera sp. were dominated with high components loading, low variance and high abundance. The CCA showed, there was no correlation between Rotatoria abundance and a biotic parameters. Based on the zooplankton structure and bio-indicator, the lake situation is in the meso-oligotrophic category. Thus, it is might be increased eutrophication trend due to no management and no aquatic control in this ecosystem.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-10-08
    Description: Anzali wetland is one of the most important places for spawning fishes and zooplankton groups are the first consumer in this ecosystem. They are the perfect food for the larvae of fishes. Zooplankton status was evaluated in 6 stations of different areas of the Anzali wetland during March 2011 to February 2012. Sampling was done by tube (PVC) and passing through of 30 micron planktonic net. The samples were identified and counted by invert microscope. According to the results were identified 60 Genus and 6 phylum (11, 31, 10, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2 genus of phylum Protozoa, Rotatoria, Arthropoda, Gastrotricha, Mollusca, Tardigrada, Nematoda, Porifera, Annelida) respectively. The results showed that the maximum annual average density of zooplankton was observed with 2497 number per liter in Karkan station and the population was more in the summer than in other seasons. Phylum of Rotatoria,, protozoa and superclass Copepoda formed 48, 45 and 6percent of the density respectively. According to the results the population of zooplankton did not change much compared to past studies, excluding Protozoa but the diversity of all zooplankton group are declined very much. According to the statistical analysis Kruskal Wallis are not significant differences between density of zooplankton in different stations, months and seasons (p 〉 0.05), but significant differences were found in different phylum together (p〈0.05).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: The Caspian Sea with brackish water is known as typical environment due to geo position, precious biota and the largest land-enclosed drainage area in the world. Macrobenthos were performed the main group of the Caspian Sea fauna. While they use as environmental bio-assessment, they have not completely studied in the Caspian Sea especially in estuaries environments. In this survey were studied eighteen river estuaries in Guilan province off Caspian sea southwest including Asrara, Chelevand, Lemir, Havigh, Shirabad, Khotbesara, Lisar, Karganroud, Navroud, Nokandekeh, Sefidrud, Heshmatrud, Langerud, Polerud and Chabokrud. The macro-invertebrate sampling was conducted seasonally at eight stations during autumn 2008 to autumn 2009. The macrobenthos organisms were identified as possible level in genus or species. The Shannon Wiener diversity and the Hilsenhoff biotic indices were used for evaluation of environmental quality. In this study, 69 genus identified that belong to 36 families and 16 orders. The most presentation of genus belongs to Chironomidae family with twenty six genus while others families were included forty three genus. The most average of macro-invertebrate abundance belong to order of Diptera with 35 %, subsequently the abundance of Amphipoda and Bivalvia orders occupied the second rank with 8.2 %. Orders Polychaeta, Oligochaeta and Cumacea had a low abundance during the study, however the Polychaeta showed a high abundance in some seasons and stations (up to 25%). The Plecoptera was rarely observed in some stations with high abundance. The Stenogammarus genus had the normally distribution during study, while Chironomidae genera as Eukifferiella and Cricotopus were measured in the high abundance during autumn 2008 to spring 2009. While Streblospio and Limnodrilus had the high presentation during winter and spring 2009, Cerastoderma sp. showed a high percentage in spring and summer 2009. The result of Shannon Wiener index values showed a significantly difference among regions for most seasons. There was also observed significantly difference for diversity values among stations in different seasons. According to Hilsenhoff biotic index for water quality classification; the most stations had good quality in spring 2009, while they were slightly and moderately good condition in winter 2009. The water quality of the Caspian Sea stations was in good condition as compared with the rivers estuary stations.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: Use and enrichment of live food resource in fish farms have been interested and highly demanded. Crustacean are one of the important groups. The Pontogammarus maeoticus dominated in southern Caspian Sea shore with a high abundance. This study was designed in order to adaptation and usage of amphipoda in fish culture ponds. The first part have been surveyed the laboratory experiments including of; to increasing and developing of P.maeoticus in 200 litter container, the effects of salinity on growth and survival of amphipods in many aquariums, the culture of common carp with amphipods and growth determination of them. Chemical composition analysis of P.maeoticus and carps fed by amphipods in compare to cultured carps from ordinary ponds. Due to concern about common healthy the heavy metal concentration has been measured in P. maeoticus, carp which were fed by amphipods and the cultured carps in earth ponds. In second phase; the adaptation of two amphipods species, P. maeoticus and Obesogammarus acuminatus was studied in fish ponds where some cages with sandy soft substrate had been provided for amphipoda replacement. Also a small surface of ponds surrounded by net and covered by Azola plant, a habitat suitable for to putting of O. acuminatus. Production of amphipoda had not the successfully results in large tanks. Aquariums with Caspian Sea water had the prosper results where the specimens were breeding and developing properly, even though in some aquarium with freshwater increased the amphipods number. The chemical composition had not significant difference between two kind of cultured carps while the organic component in amphipoda had a high quality. The better quality of cultured carp by amphipod diet have been confirmed by organoleptic test. The results of heavy metal measurement in amphipoda showed a high concentration which some of them were transmitted to cultured carps. Result of amphipoda replacement in cage was not satisfy and the specimens were died after some days. According to hydro-chemical parameters the oxygen poorness and high trophy levels were the affective factor to abolish of specimens in cages. It seems that there are many type of P.maeoticus that can be adapted in different salinities. The molecular differentiation should be investigated to choose the suitable type of this spices for utilization in freshwater fish ponds. In other hand it can be used in fish culture ponds that will be supplied by brackish water.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: This research was conducted to finding of Cheshmeh-Ali and Shahcheraghi-Dam downstream areas potential for developing of aquaculture industry. The present study was conducted based on available information and data from monthly and seasonally sampling including geographical area, margin lands and fluctuations of river water, seasonal climatic changes view point of rainfall, temperature, wet, evaporation, wind velocity, sunshine hours, frost and also chemical and physical parameters of water including temperature, alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, organic phosphorous and nitrogen, suspended solids, turbidity, water flow and flood conditions, and in addition phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, macrobenthic invertebrates, fishes, aquatic plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds. Results showed that the upstream and downstream regions of Shahcheraghi dam are not suitable for warm water aquaculture in earthen ponds. But view point of cold-water aquaculture, particularly trout, there are some good situations. Also it can be suggested different culture systems including of race way, octagonal concrete ponds, semi-circulation and circulation methods. But, due to water restrictions in the area, semi-circulation and circulation system is preferred. In ideal conditions can be produced about 1,600 tones of trout, if all the capacity of this area be used for aquaculture. Otherwise, in limited circumstances view point of exploitation possibility of the water, only about 700 tons can be produced. In addition, there were appropriate facilities in spring area of Cheshmehali for tourism industry, that it can be considered as priorities for economic development in the region. Due to the low sensitivity of the ecologically conditions, native or exotic aquatic species rearing in indoor methods can be recommended.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-10-08
    Description: Phytoplankton groups are very important producers in the Anzali lagoon that have a significant role in the quality of water and the need to be constantly study their sequence and density. The survey was conducted in six workstations March 1389-Feb 2012. Samples were taken for a liter of water with plicae (P.V.C) and fixed with formalin to 4% ratio. Five ml of the sample after becoming homogeneous, was sequestration for 24 hours in the laboratory and identified and counted by invert microscope. Based on the results of this reviews 67 genus (22, 26, 9, 5, 1, 2, 1, and 1 genus respectively of the Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta branches, Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta Chrysophyta, Pyrrophyta, the Xanthophyta) were identified. The results showed that the phytoplankton density was the most in Sorkhankol and Komeh Aghajani stations with annual average of 24387483±5643414 and 20381250 ± 5488084 per liter respectively. The Bacillariophyta ( particularly Cyclotella) was dominant in all of stations but high density of blue green algae (Cyanophyta) in Komeh aghajani station from July to mid-October have caused the annual average of these phylum is more than Bacillariophyta. In General, the average density of phytoplankton was the highest in summer than other seasons and was the lowest value in the fall. The number of the genus identified in this survey is less than previous studies. Compare this survey with the last studies reviews shows that diversity is reduced in the current situation in the Anzali than previous studies. According to the statistical analysis of the Kruskal Wallis, the density of phytoplankton had no significant differences in the different months, stations and seasons (p〉0.05) but the phytoplankton phylums have significant differences (p〈0.05) together.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: This study focused on identification phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, fishes and relationship between biotic and abiotic parameters at three stations in the Kan river during 2014. This study identified 19 phytoplankton taxa. The findings showed, the diatoms abundance were dominated in the river. The chlorophytes abundance were recorded the lowest abundance in this study. The nutrients and water temperature were the significant abiotic parameters to increase cyanophytes and chlorophytes abundance in the Kan river. This study identified 26 zooplankton taxa. The Rotatoria and Protozoa abundance were dominated in the Kan river. Based on CCA, there was no correlation between abundance zooplankton and abiotic parameters. The biodiversity index of plankton was between 1.8 and 2 and the lake situation is located in the mesotrophic category. The study of the Kan river fishes showed, only one endemic fish species Capoeta bohsei. The length (between 38 and 270 mm, average 144±86 mm) and weight (between 1.1 and 356 g, average 108.8±146.7 g) of the C. bohsei were varied during the study period. The 19 benthos taxa were identified. The Ephemeroptera was most abundant in the benthos groups. The classification of river based on biology indicator and environmental parameters confimed that water quality is located in the moderate category.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: Cheetgar Lake or Persian Gulf Martyrs' lake is an artificial lake in the North west of Tehran is located in district 22 of Tehran municipality. The lake covers an area of 130 hectares, which is located north of forest park Cheetgar. In south, to Tehran-Karaj highway, In north Hemmat expressway, from East to Azadegan expressway and west and from residential areas district 22 of Tehran municipality is limited. Kan River from East and Vardavard of West cheetgar Lake crossing and Kann River is the main source of water of the Cheetgar Lake now. Plankton is one of the important factors related to water quality. In this context, understanding the biological and nonbiological lake and its ecological status of a useful tool for managing sustainable exploitation with an emphasis on water quality is maintained. This study focused on phytoplankton structure, a bioticlimiting factors in phytoplankton bloom at the 5 stations between 2013 and 2014 in the Chitgar Lake. according to profile Lake after visiting five stations in the lake water body determined that Different depths are sampled. Sampling of phytoplankton is done by using a liter Ruthner sampler in layers and deep level (of a cylindrical column) were taken. Than 4% formalin fixed samples and transferred to the laboratory for quantitative and qualitative study. In laboratory planktonic samples after determining the volume and mixture, were transferred by pipette to 5ml chambers and after sufficient time to sediment, were identified and counted by inverted microscope. This study identified 35 phytoplankton taxa comprised of diatoms (12 genus), chlorophytes (15 genus), cyanophytes (4 genus), dinoflagellates (2 genus) and chrysophytes (1 genus) in the lake. The finding showed, the diatom abundance dominate (average of 2060000 ± 230000 cells.l-1) in the Chitgar lake. The annual average phytoplankton abundance was calculated as 2550000 ± 304000, with the maximum value recorded in February 2013 (4400000 ± 450000 cell. l-1). The PCA analysis displayed, the diatoms Cyclotella sp., Achnanthes sp. and Chrysophte Dinobryon sp. were dominated in the study period. Based on CCA analyses, total nitrogen and water temperature were the significant parameters to increase cyanophytes and dinoflagellates abundance in the Chitgar lake. In overall, the lowest phytoplankton abundance recorded in the Chitgar Lake as compared with other lakes which is an meso-oligotrophic category with the latest trophy state lake. Thus, it is might be increased eutrophication trend due to no management and no aquatic control in this ecosystem.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: Cheetgar Lake or Persian Gulf Martyrs' lake is an artificial lake in the North west of Tehran is located in district 22 of Tehran municipality.The lake covers an area of 130 hectares, which is located north of forest park Cheetgar. In south,to Tehran-Karaj highway, In north Hemmat expressway, from East to Azadegan expressway and west and from residential areas district 22 of Tehran municipality is limited. Kan River from East and Vardavard of West cheetgar Lake crossing and Kann River is the main source of water of the Cheetgar Lake now. Plankton is one of the important factors related to water quality. In this context, understanding the biological and nonbiological lake and its ecological status of a useful tool for managing sustainable exploitation with an emphasis on water quality is maintained. This study focused on zooplankton structure, biodiversity, relationship between a biotic parameters and zooplankton variation, and trophy state of the Persian Gulf Martyrs Lake (Chitgar-Tehran). Based on the lake condition, samples were collected by Juday net from the bottom to the surface (of a cylindrical column) at the 5 stations between 2013 and 2014. Than 4% formalin fixed samples and transferred to the laboratory for quantitative and qualitative study. In laboratory planktonic samples after determining the volume and mixture, were transferred by pipette to 5ml chambers and after sufficient time to sediment, were identified and counted by inverted microscope. This study identified 36 zooplankton taxa comprised of Arthropoda (6 genus), Protozoa (6 genus), Rotatoria (20 genus), Nematoda (1 genus), Gastrotricha (2 genus) and Oligochaeta (1 genus). The Rotatoria abundance average was measured 61±18 ind.l-1 in the lake. The Nematoda, Gastrotricha and Oligochaeta taxa were measured the lowest abundance (〈1ind.l-1) in this study. The annual average zooplankton abundance was measured as 72±18 ind.l-1. The PCA displayed, the Rotatoria Trichocerca sp. and Polyarthera sp. were dominated with high components loading, low variance and highabundance. The CCA showed, there was no correlation between Rotatoria abundance and a biotic parameters. Based on the zooplankton structure and bio-indicator, the lake situation is in the meso-oligotrophic category. Thus, it is might be increased eutrophication trend due tono management and no aquatic control in this ecosystem.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: The Anzali wetland (37.28N – 49.25E) with less than 100 km2 surface area is located in the southwestern shores of the Caspian Sea in the Guilan province. The benthic macro-invertebrates were studied as a part of a main project titled study of aquatic communities variation in the Anzali wetland. The sampling was performed at the 10 stations with using a Van-Veen grab during 2014-2015. The results showed, 14 macro-invertebrates taxa were identified as Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera) and Tubificidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta), they were dominated in the wetland. The maximum and minimum densities of macro-invertebrates were observed with 609±1119 and 93.32±27.92 n/m^2 respectively at the stations 5 and 1. The silt-clay constitute more than 85 percentage of the wetland sediments with maximum of 93.2±27.92 percentage at the 2 station and minimum 72.21±27.92 at the 5 station. Kruskal Wallis non parametric test (sig. ≤0.05), revealed significant differences for all studied factors at stations while of %tom and grain size had no significant variation. The CCA analysis revealed no accordance of total organic matter (TOM ) and silt- clay percentage vectors with Tubificidae and total benthic frequencies, while Chironomidae frequency is in accordance. Intensifying eutrification process in the Anzali wetland has affected its biota as the benthic fauna are almost limited in to most tolerant taxa which reflect the day after day increasing pollution the Anzali wetland.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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