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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-05-23
    Description: Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are ubiquitous on tidal flats but their impact on sediment erosion has not been fully understood. Laboratory-controlled sediment beds were incubated with Bacillus subtilis for 5, 10, 16 and 22 days before the erosion experiments, to study the temporal and spatial variations in sediment stability caused by the bacterial secreted EPS. We found the bio-sedimentary systems showed different erosional behaviour related to biofilm maturity and EPS distribution. In the first stage (5 days), the bio-sedimentary bed was more easily eroded than the clean sediment. With increasing growth period, bound EPS became more widely distributed over the vertical profile resulting in bed stabilisation. After 22 days, the bound EPS was highly concentrated within a surface biofilm, but a relatively high content also extended to a depth of 5 mm and then decayed sharply with depth. The biofilm increased the critical shear stress of the bed and furthermore, it enabled the bed to withstand threshold conditions for an increased period of time as the biofilm degraded before eroding. After the loss of biofilm protection, the high EPS content in the sub-layers continued to stabilise the sediment (hindered erosion) by binding individual grains, as visualized by electron microscopy. Consequently, the bed strength did not immediately revert to the abiotic condition but progressively adjusted, reflecting the depth profile of the EPS. Our experiments highlight the need to treat the EPS-sediment conditioning as a bed-age associated and depth-dependent variable that should be included in the next generation of sediment transport models.
    Print ISSN: 0043-1397
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-7973
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-06-14
    Description: Endogenous and exogenous factors can induce DNA damage, leading to increased risk of cancer. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is considered as the most versatile DNA repair pathway to deal with a variety of different DNA lesions. ERCC1 and ERCC2 are the two important proteins in NER pathway. In this study, we investigated the association of three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ( ERCC1 rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181 and ERCC2 rs1799793) with the clinical outcome of 940 gastric cancer patients in a Chinese population. Multiplex SNaPshot technology was used to genotype these three SNPs. Our results revealed that individuals with ERCC2 rs13181TG/GG genotypes had a decreased risk of death compared with those with TT genotype [log-rank P = 0.008; adjusted hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval = 0.51–0.91] and this protective effect was more pronounced among the subgroups of patients with tumour size ≤ 5cm (0.59, 0.39–0.89), non-cardia gastric tumour (0.69, 0.48–0.98), no lymph node metastasis (0.55, 0.32–0.96), no distant metastasis (0.70, 0.52–0.95) and chemotherapy (0.39, 0.21–0.72). We conclude that ERCC2 rs13181 polymorphism could play different roles in the overall survival of gastric cancer. Further larger studies should be conducted to validate our findings.
    Print ISSN: 0267-8357
    Electronic ISSN: 1464-3804
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-07-20
    Description: Trichomes are universal biological structures originating from the aerial epidermis, which serve as an excellent model to study plant differentiation at the cell level. Although the pathway regulating trichome formation in the Rosids has been well characterized, only very recently a few genes were identified for trichome initiation in the Asterids. In this study, we cloned Woolly (Wo), essential for trichome formation in tomato. Transgenic experiments revealed that the woolly phenotype is caused by the mutation in Wo which encodes a homeodomain protein containing a bZIP motif and a START domain. We identified three alleles of Wo and found that each allele contains a missense mutation, which respectively results in an amino acid substitution at the C terminus. Microarray and expression analysis showed that the expression of a B-type cyclin gene, SlCycB2, is possibly regulated by Wo, which also participates in trichome formation. Suppression of Wo or SlCycB2 expression by RNAi decreased the number of type I trichomes, and direct protein–protein interaction was detected between them, implying that both proteins may work together in the regulation of this type of trichome formation. Cytological observation and Wo transcript analysis in the developing seeds showed that embryo development was also correlated with Wo.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-08-08
    Description: Contact: zyhe@dlut.edu.cn
    Print ISSN: 1367-4803
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2059
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-12-22
    Description: The fluid pressure fluctuation generated by unsteady flow is a very important factor to induce vibration of the centrifugal pump. The relative movement between impeller and volute generates an unsteady interaction which affects not only the overall pump performance, but is also responsible for pressure fluctuations. Pressure fluctuations interact with the volute casing or even with the circuit and give rise to dynamic effects over the mechanical parts, which are one of the most important sources of vibration and hydraulic noise. To investigate the flow characteristic in the centrifugal pump, the unsteady flow is simulated by CFD methods in this paper. Unsteady flow characteristic in the centrifugal pump is obtained considering the impeller-volute interaction in the whole flow field. Based on the unsteady flow simulation, amplitude-frequency characteristics of the pressure fluctuation in the centrifugal pump are obtained through setting up monitoring point at the impeller outlet....
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-12-22
    Description: The pump turbine is key component of Pump Storage Power Plants. Moreover, the model testing proves significant guidance on design of pump turbine. Since pump turbine model testing is different from turbine model resulting from four quadrant experiment, point acquisition for transient operation conditions and special data processing, the optimization is made for these technological difficulties. In order to obtain a higher efficiency, a higher precision and a high degree of automation, the system of data acquisition is designed, in which the PXI platform was adopted, and the virtual instrument software LabVIEW was employed. And this system was successfully applied for the testing platform of Harbin Institute of Large Electric Machinery which achieves functions of transient conditions acquisition, measurement for positive and negative flow and speed, data processing, generating report, analysis for pressure fluctuation and so on. Finally four quadrant experiment was carried out in...
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-12-03
    Description: Nature Physics 9, 817 (2013). doi:10.1038/nphys2795 Authors: J. Li, H. Y. Guo, B. N. Wan, X. Z. Gong, Y. F. Liang, G. S. Xu, K. F. Gan, J. S. Hu, H. Q. Wang, L. Wang, L. Zeng, Y. P. Zhao, P. Denner, G. L. Jackson, A. Loarte, R. Maingi, J. E. Menard, M. Rack & X. L. Zou
    Print ISSN: 1745-2473
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-2481
    Topics: Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-07-07
    Description: Stab resistance body armor (SRBA) is an essential defensive equipment to protect human body against injuries from stabbing. The conventional SRBAs shared low wearing frequency since they are heavy and poor in flexibility. This paper designed a structured stab-resistance plate using the model of crocodile armor and manufactured using 3D printing technology-laser sintering (LS). CF(Carbon fiber) was applied to enhance the stab resistance properties of SRBA. The effects of the material and structure were analysed through the stab resistance property tests based on the national standard GA68-2008. It is found that the stab resistance property of flat plates sintered by PA powder and PA/CF are both weaker than that of the structured plate. The penetrating depth of PA/CF structured plate is significantly 2-mm-less than the pure PA structured plate. The SEM observations confirmed the conclusion that addition of the CF largely improved the plate stab resistance property. Moreover, using...
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 9
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2015-01-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gong, Zhaohui -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jan 8;517(7533):145. doi: 10.1038/517145c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ningbo University School of Medicine, Ningbo, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25567273" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Air Pollution/adverse effects/*prevention & control ; China ; Climate Change ; Congresses as Topic ; Humans ; Public Health ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-11-25
    Description: On the basis of geophysical observations, cosmochemical constraints, and high-pressure experimental data, the Earth's liquid outer core consists of mainly liquid iron alloyed with about ten per cent (by weight) of light elements. Although the concentrations of the light elements are small, they nevertheless affect the Earth's core: its rate of cooling, the growth of the inner core, the dynamics of core convection, and the evolution of the geodynamo. Several light elements-including sulphur, oxygen, silicon, carbon and hydrogen-have been suggested, but the precise identity of the light elements in the Earth's core is still unclear. Oxygen has been proposed as a major light element in the core on the basis of cosmochemical arguments and chemical reactions during accretion. Its presence in the core has direct implications for Earth accretion conditions of oxidation state, pressure and temperature. Here we report new shockwave data in the Fe-S-O system that are directly applicable to the outer core. The data include both density and sound velocity measurements, which we compare with the observed density and velocity profiles of the liquid outer core. The results show that we can rule out oxygen as a major light element in the liquid outer core because adding oxygen into liquid iron would not reproduce simultaneously the observed density and sound velocity profiles of the outer core. An oxygen-depleted core would imply a more reduced environment during early Earth accretion.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Haijun -- Fei, Yingwei -- Cai, Lingcang -- Jing, Fuqian -- Hu, Xiaojun -- Xie, Hongsen -- Zhang, Lianmeng -- Gong, Zizheng -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 23;479(7374):513-6. doi: 10.1038/nature10621.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113693" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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