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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-05-23
    Description: Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are ubiquitous on tidal flats but their impact on sediment erosion has not been fully understood. Laboratory-controlled sediment beds were incubated with Bacillus subtilis for 5, 10, 16 and 22 days before the erosion experiments, to study the temporal and spatial variations in sediment stability caused by the bacterial secreted EPS. We found the bio-sedimentary systems showed different erosional behaviour related to biofilm maturity and EPS distribution. In the first stage (5 days), the bio-sedimentary bed was more easily eroded than the clean sediment. With increasing growth period, bound EPS became more widely distributed over the vertical profile resulting in bed stabilisation. After 22 days, the bound EPS was highly concentrated within a surface biofilm, but a relatively high content also extended to a depth of 5 mm and then decayed sharply with depth. The biofilm increased the critical shear stress of the bed and furthermore, it enabled the bed to withstand threshold conditions for an increased period of time as the biofilm degraded before eroding. After the loss of biofilm protection, the high EPS content in the sub-layers continued to stabilise the sediment (hindered erosion) by binding individual grains, as visualized by electron microscopy. Consequently, the bed strength did not immediately revert to the abiotic condition but progressively adjusted, reflecting the depth profile of the EPS. Our experiments highlight the need to treat the EPS-sediment conditioning as a bed-age associated and depth-dependent variable that should be included in the next generation of sediment transport models.
    Print ISSN: 0043-1397
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-7973
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-12-03
    Description: Nature Physics 9, 817 (2013). doi:10.1038/nphys2795 Authors: J. Li, H. Y. Guo, B. N. Wan, X. Z. Gong, Y. F. Liang, G. S. Xu, K. F. Gan, J. S. Hu, H. Q. Wang, L. Wang, L. Zeng, Y. P. Zhao, P. Denner, G. L. Jackson, A. Loarte, R. Maingi, J. E. Menard, M. Rack & X. L. Zou
    Print ISSN: 1745-2473
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-2481
    Topics: Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-06-19
    Description: An ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) system with power up to 6.0 MW and a lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system up to 4 MW have been applied for heating and current drive experiments in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokomak (EAST). Significant progress has been made with ICRF heating and LHCD for realizing the H-mode plasma operation in EAST. During 2010 and 2012 experimental campaigns, ICRF heating experiments were carried out at the fixed frequency of 27MHz, achieving effective ions and electrons heating with the H minority heating (H-MH) mode. The H-MH mode produced good plasma performance, and realized H-mode using ICRF power alone in 2012. In 2010, H-modes were generated and sustained by LHCD alone, where lithium coating and gas puffing near the mouth of the LH launcher were applied to improve the LHCD power coupling and penetration into the core plasmas of H-modes. In 2012, the combination of LHCD and ICRH power extended the H-mode duration up to over 30 s. H-modes with various types of edge localized modes (ELMs) have been achieved with H IPB98 (y, 2) ranging from 0.7 to over unity. A brief overview of LHCD and ICRF Heating experiment and their application in achieving H-mode operation during these two campaigns will be presented.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-10-14
    Description: Author(s): T. J. S. Munsie, M. N. Wilson, A. Millington, C. M. Thompson, R. Flacau, C. Ding, S. Guo, Z. Gong, A. A. Aczel, H. B. Cao, T. J. Williams, H. A. Dabkowska, F. Ning, J. E. Greedan, and G. M. Luke Neutron diffraction and muon spin relaxation ( μ SR ) studies are presented for the newly characterized polymorph of NiNb 2 O 6   ( β − NiNb 2 O 6 ) with space group P 4 2 / n and μ SR data only for the previously known columbite structure polymorph with space group P b c n . The magnetic structure of the P 4 2 / n form was de... [Phys. Rev. B 96, 144417] Published Fri Oct 13, 2017
    Keywords: Magnetism
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-11-25
    Description: On the basis of geophysical observations, cosmochemical constraints, and high-pressure experimental data, the Earth's liquid outer core consists of mainly liquid iron alloyed with about ten per cent (by weight) of light elements. Although the concentrations of the light elements are small, they nevertheless affect the Earth's core: its rate of cooling, the growth of the inner core, the dynamics of core convection, and the evolution of the geodynamo. Several light elements-including sulphur, oxygen, silicon, carbon and hydrogen-have been suggested, but the precise identity of the light elements in the Earth's core is still unclear. Oxygen has been proposed as a major light element in the core on the basis of cosmochemical arguments and chemical reactions during accretion. Its presence in the core has direct implications for Earth accretion conditions of oxidation state, pressure and temperature. Here we report new shockwave data in the Fe-S-O system that are directly applicable to the outer core. The data include both density and sound velocity measurements, which we compare with the observed density and velocity profiles of the liquid outer core. The results show that we can rule out oxygen as a major light element in the liquid outer core because adding oxygen into liquid iron would not reproduce simultaneously the observed density and sound velocity profiles of the outer core. An oxygen-depleted core would imply a more reduced environment during early Earth accretion.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Haijun -- Fei, Yingwei -- Cai, Lingcang -- Jing, Fuqian -- Hu, Xiaojun -- Xie, Hongsen -- Zhang, Lianmeng -- Gong, Zizheng -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 23;479(7374):513-6. doi: 10.1038/nature10621.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113693" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: Observing marine mammal (MM) populations continuously in time and space over the immense ocean areas they inhabit is challenging but essential for gathering an unambiguous record of their distribution, as well as understanding their behaviour and interaction with prey species. Here we use passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) in an important North Atlantic feeding ground to instantaneously detect, localize and classify MM vocalizations from diverse species over an approximately 100,000 km(2) region. More than eight species of vocal MMs are found to spatially converge on fish spawning areas containing massive densely populated herring shoals at night-time and diffuse herring distributions during daytime. We find the vocal MMs divide the enormous fish prey field into species-specific foraging areas with varying degrees of spatial overlap, maintained for at least two weeks of the herring spawning period. The recorded vocalization rates are diel (24 h)-dependent for all MM species, with some significantly more vocal at night and others more vocal during the day. The four key baleen whale species of the region: fin, humpback, blue and minke have vocalization rate trends that are highly correlated to trends in fish shoaling density and to each other over the diel cycle. These results reveal the temporospatial dynamics of combined multi-species MM foraging activities in the vicinity of an extensive fish prey field that forms a massive ecological hotspot, and would be unattainable with conventional methodologies. Understanding MM behaviour and distributions is essential for management of marine ecosystems and for accessing anthropogenic impacts on these protected marine species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Delin -- Garcia, Heriberto -- Huang, Wei -- Tran, Duong D -- Jain, Ankita D -- Yi, Dong Hoon -- Gong, Zheng -- Jech, J Michael -- Godo, Olav Rune -- Makris, Nicholas C -- Ratilal, Purnima -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):366-70. doi: 10.1038/nature16960. Epub 2016 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory for Ocean Acoustics and Ecosystem Sensing, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Laboratory for Undersea Remote Sensing, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 166 Water Street, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA. ; Institute of Marine Research, Post Office Box 1870, Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934221" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acoustics ; Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*physiology ; Atlantic Ocean ; Diet/veterinary ; Ecosystem ; *Feeding Behavior ; Fishes/*physiology ; Male ; Mammals/*physiology ; *Predatory Behavior ; Time Factors ; *Vocalization, Animal ; Whales/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2015-01-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gong, Zhaohui -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jan 8;517(7533):145. doi: 10.1038/517145c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ningbo University School of Medicine, Ningbo, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25567273" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Air Pollution/adverse effects/*prevention & control ; China ; Climate Change ; Congresses as Topic ; Humans ; Public Health ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-12-13
    Description: The dependence of divertor asymmetry and scrape-off layer (SOL) flow on heating power has been investigated in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Divertor plasma exhibits an outboard-enhanced in-out asymmetry in heat flux in lower single null configuration for in reversed (ion ∇ B drift direction toward the upper X-point) field directions. Upper single null exhibits an inboard-favored asymmetry in low heating power condition, while exhibits an outboard-favored asymmetry when increasing the heating power. Double null has the strongest in-out asymmetry in heat flux, favoring the outer divertor. The in-out asymmetry ratios of q t , out / q t , in and P out / P total increase with the power across the separatrix P loss , which is probably induced by the enhanced radial particle transport due to a large pressure gradient. The characteristics of the measured SOL parallel flow under various discharge conditions are consistent with the Pfirsch-Schlüter (PS) flow with the parallel Mach number M ∥ decreasing with the line averaged density but increasing with P loss , in the same direction as the PS flow. The contributions of both poloidal E × B drift and parallel flow on poloidal particle transport in SOL on EAST are also assessed.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: An alternating integrator has been designed for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak that is intended for long pulse operation of up to 1000 s. The electromagnetic operating environment for the device is so complex that it could affect the performance of the integrator. The new integrator system is carefully designed and actualized based on specific reduced electromagnetic interference requirements, which were formulated based on consideration of processing of the input signals, the isolation properties, and the circuit board layout and grounding. The developed integrator shows excellent electromagnetic compatibility and low-drift properties.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-09-24
    Description: High-confinement regime with high-frequency and low-energy-loss small edge localized modes (ELMs) was achieved in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak by using the lower hybrid current drive and ion cyclotron resonance heating with lithium wall conditioning. The small ELMs are usually accompanied with a quasi-coherent mode at frequency around 30 kHz, as detected by the Langmuir probes near the separatrix. The coherent mode, with weak magnetic perturbations different from the precursor of conventional ELMs, propagates in the electron diamagnetic drift direction in the lab frame with the poloidal wavelength λ θ  ∼ 14 cm, corresponding to both high poloidal and toroidal mode numbers (m 〉 60 and n 〉 12). This coherent mode, carrying high-temperature high-density filament-like plasma, drives considerable transport from the pedestal region into the scrape-off layer towards divertor region. The co-existence of small ELMs and quasi-coherent modes is beneficial for the sustainment of long pulse H-mode regime without significant confinement degradation.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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