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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: We investigated the effects of Vibrionaceae family of bacteria as probiotics in the process of growth and survival rate of shrimp during propagation stages. Bacterial flora were extracted from seawater, culture farms, shrimp culture farms and sludge of private propagation farms. Different bacteria such as Vibrio alginolyticus (serotype 1-4), Vibrio splendidus I, Vibrio fluvialis II, Vibrio anguillarum I, Vibrio costicul, Vibrio vulnificaus, Vibrio nereis, Vibrio camplbelli, Vibrio natriegens, Vibrio proteolyticus, Vibrio plegius II ,Vibrio fischeri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas schuberti, Aeromonas salmonisida, Aeromonas veronii were isolated, identified and lyophilized. These bacteria were used in different experiments on shrimp life cycle stages while the shrimps were being fed on live food such as Chaetoceros, Skeletonema and Tetraselmis algae. Vibrio alginolyticus (serotype 1) with 107 cells/ml increased proliferation of Tetraselmis sp to 71 % in 6 days compared to the control experiment. Also Vibrio alginolyticus (serotype 4) with 105 cells/in' increased Tetraselmis sp. production to 389% in 6 days compared to control. Vibrio splendidus I was also found to be able to increase shrimp fork length in postlarvae stage 3 up to 23% as compared to control. Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio fischeri increased survival, fork lenght and body weight of green tiger shrimp in postlarvae stage significantly (P〈0.05).
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries ; Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: After severe mortality due to white spot disease incidence in cultured shrimps of Helleh grows out farms, disease spread to Delvar,Mond, Boeyrat and Bandar Rig sites in Bushehr province during 2005. Many crustaceans keep this virus in the body, act as a carrier, and can spread of the infection. In order to investigate status of contamination of wild shrimp and crab's population to white spot virus in Bushehr province waters (north of Persian Gulf), samples were collected and tested by Nested PCR for detection of WSV from estuaries and input and output channels water around the Helleh, Shif and Mond sites during 2007 and 2008. Total tested shrimps were 401 peaces, includes green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) 220 pieces, white shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) 181 pieces, also total tested crabs were 292 pieces includes Ocypode rotundata 68 pieces and Portunus pelagicus 224 pieces. All the samples showed negative results of WSV contamination. However, it can never be sure that the population is free from WSV unless we collect a random sample of 300 pieces from each species and test them individually for WSV. Therefore, we will be confident up to 95% that the wild sources in that area have no prevalence of 1% or upper WSV contamination.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: The incidence of white spot disease in farmed Penaeus indicus in Busheher region was evaluated by analyzing 200 shrimp individuals between June and September, 2005. The samples were examined for clinical sign including observation of white spots on the cuticle and tissue. Samples were processed using polymerase chain reaction (Nested-PCR) test. The results showed that 24% of the samples examined were clinically positive having white spots on their cuticles. Also, 92% of the samples examined were positive in PCR examination. Furthermore, 70% of apparently healthy shrimp were positively identified using the by PCR test.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-24
    Description: During the last decade, shrimp aquaculture has developed rapidly in many developing countries. Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in shrimp aquaculture. Seaweeds are considered as potent source of bioactive compounds that are able to produce biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic and chloroformic crude extracts of the brown algae, Sargassum latifolium derived from Persian Gulf waters. The extractions against shrimp selective pathogen bacteria including Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. harveyi were used by disk diffusion agar method. Results revealed that all mentioned bacteria were sensitive to both ethanolic and chloroformic crude extracts of S. latifolium. The minimum inhibitory concentration of chloroformic extract of S. latifolium against the bacteria was performed by tube dilution technique. MICs were 5, 10 and 10 mg ml^-1 for V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. harveyi, respectively while minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were 5, 15 and 20 mg ml^-1. This study recommended that S. latifolium isolated from Persian Gulf waters has antibacterial activity potential against shrimp pathogen bacteria.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of replacing Z. multiflora instead of antibiotics and chemicals in shrimp aquaculture industry to protect the environment and prevention of microbial resistance. In vitro MIC of Z. multiflora essential oil against Candida albicans and Fusarium solani obtained 0.004% and 0.008% respectively, also MFC of Z. multiflora essential oil against C. albicans and F. solani was 0.004% and 0.04%, respectively. The results showed that 0.0002% dosage of Z. multiflora essential oil against total count of fungi in sea water (salinity 39±1ppt) can decrease growth of fungi after 6 h and 0.0004%, 0.0008% and 0.0016% dosages can decrease the total count of fungi in sea water. But very low dosage of Z. multiflora essential oil in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei leads to mortality. Lethal dose of Z. multiflora essential oil in shrimp postlarvae, juvenile (2±0.2g) and adults (10-12 g) was 0.00050%, 0.00045% and 0.00035%, respectively. The results indicated that Z. multiflora have a significant anti-fungal effect but is toxic for L. vannamei. We recommend that Z. multiflora essential oil can be used in non-living environment, such as disinfecting tanks and equipments.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-27
    Description: Complementary feedstuff extract from Laminaria digitata and Ascophylum nodossum containing 1% alginic acids as stimulator of immune system in Litopenaeus vannamei for controlling WSSV was used in this study. The test shrimps, Litopenaeus vannamei, in larvae stage (Z1-131,1), post larvae stage (PL1-PLO and juvenile (from day 30 to 40) were fed by complimentary feed stuff as the other test conditions in the test and control group were the same. Both groups were exposed to WSSV after 40 days by oral inoculation. The clinical signs and mortality were recorded for 10 days. The results showed the survival rate of the test group was higher than the control group and it was significant (P〈0.05). The results also showed that the mortality in the test group occurred 48 hours later than the control group. This study can lead us to new methods for controlling White Spot Disease.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: Studying the likely relationships between biotic and abiotic factors and their effects on growth and survival of the cultured aquatics is one of the most important fishery research areas. In this study, we used three Penaeus semisulcatus culture ponds, each with 0.4 hectares surface area and a stocking rate of 25 shrimps per square meter in Bushehr Province of Iran to examine the effects of physico-chemical properties of water on growth and survival rate of the shrimp. The average body weight of the shrimp reached as high as 10.59 grams and with an estimated food conversion ratio of 1.3, a mean yield of 1954 kg/ha was recorded in this study. The independent variables including water temperature, pH, planktonic bloom, salinity, nitrate and phosphate, water depth, dissolved oxygen and food consumption had all significant correlations with the shrimp weight as dependent variable. The planktonic bloom showed the highest correlation with the shrimp weight (r=0.8.7). The overall correlation of first four most important factors with the shrimp weight, namely planktonic bloom, morning dissolved oxygen, pH stability and feeding rate was estimated to be r=0.939.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: In order to domesticate Litopenaeus vannamei as a solution to single species shrimp aquaculture of Penaeus indicus and to reduce risk of shrimp culture in emergency cases, this study was carried out. Initially the postlarvae reared from imported L. vannamei were cultured. After culture season the adult shrimps were transported to greenhouse ponds for wintering. It is then relocated to hatchery saloon. After eye stalk ablation and maturation the female brood stocks were introduced to matured male for copulation at ponds. During the study period, male and female shrimp’s attained full maturation at end – April by temperature over 25ºC, the copulation process was started significantly. Finally of the 12 instances of copulation, one instance resulted nauplii production. The best maturation was observed at 28 ֯C ±1 and salinity30 to 33PPT and pH of 8 to 8.3 Fresh sea worms and squid showed the highest effect on fecundity in brood stocks. Besides, the spring season was obtained to be the best period for brood stock production in Bushehr province.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Description: In this study two species of algae, Sargassum glaucescens and Padina boergeseni that found plenteously in Persian Gulf and Bushehr coast, were collected and hot water extracts of them were lyophilized. F. indicus (11.32±1.20 g), after two weeks adaptation in Shoghab research station were immersed in seawater (39 ppt and 25±1 ○C) containing hot-water extract of each brown algae, S.glaucescens and P.boergeseni, at 100, 300 and 500 mg/l concentration, Survival rate and immunological parameters (total haemocyte count (THC), total plasma protein (TPP), Phagocytic activity, bacterial clearance efficiency and bactericidal activity) were examined. In addition effect of dietary administration of beta 1, 3 1, 6 glucan on prevention of White Spot Disease and immunological parameters of shrimp were investigated. According to results, immersion in seawater containing 300 and 500 mg/l concentration of algal hot-water extract after 2 and 3 hours or oral administration of beta 1,3 1,6 glucan at level of 10 g/kg diet for 14 days significantly enhanced THC, TPP, Phagocytic activity, bacterial clearance efficiency and bactericidal activity. Immersion in seawater containing 100, 300 and 500 mg/l hot-water extract of S.glaucescens after 3 hours, improved the survival rate of WSSV-infected F. indicus.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: For the accomplish of project, nine treatments with three replicate in each treatment, used as follows. Control treatment: Feeding with natural foods (Chaetoceros sp and artemia nauplii) Treatment 1: Feeding with combination of inner artificial diet and natural foods. Treatment 2: Feeding with combination of imported artificial diet and natural foods. Treatment 3: feeding from zoea 1 to mysis 1 with chaetoceros sp and from mysis 1 to pl15 with inner artificial diet. Treatment 4: feeding from zoea 1 to mysis 1 with chaetoceros sp and from mysis 1 to pl15 with imported artificial diet. Treatment 5: feeding from zoea 1 to pl15 with project artificial diet. Treatment 6: feeding from zoea 1 to pl15 with imported artificial diet. Treatment 7: Feeding in zoeal stages with chaetoceros sp and from mysis 1 to pl15 with chaetoceros sp+artemia nauplii+ imported artificial diet. Treatment 8: Feeding in zoeal stages with chaetoceros sp and from mysis 1 to pl15 with chaetoceros sp+artemia nauplii+ project artificial diet. Larvae stocked at a density of 100 nauplii/ L-1 (1000 nauplii in each tank each tank), at the beginning of culture period The results showed that, in treatments 1, 2, 7 and 8 from zoea 1 to pl15, growth indexes were suitable and noticible, and in most treatment better than control treatment. Survival percent, in pl15 in treatment 1, 2, 7 and 8 was more than control treatment, and differention between treatment 1, 2 and 8 in comparision with control treatment was statictically significant (p〈0.05). Survival percent in treatments 5 and 6 from stages zoea 1 to late zoea 3 stage, in comparision with other treatments were lesser, but without statictically significant (p〉0.05). But thereafter, significantly decresed. In treatments 3 and 4 from zoea 1 to late mysis 3 stage, survival percent in comparision with other treatments were suitable, and thereafter, significantly decreased, and with statictically significant with other treatments (p〈0.05). The means of final weight in treatments 1, 3 and 8 was more than control treatment, but without statictically significant (p〉0.05), but in treatment 8, was more than other treatments. The mean of final length between treatments 1, 2, 6, 7, 8 and in comparision with control treatment, were not statistically significant (p〉0.05). But in treatment 2, more than control treatment, and in other treatments less than control treatment.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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