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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: Recent and fossil brachiopod shells have a long record as biomineral archives for (palaeo)climatic and (palaeo)environmental reconstructions, as they lack or exhibit limited vital effects in their calcite shell and generally are quite resistant to diagenetic alteration. Despite this, only few studies address the issue of identifying the best or optimal part of the shell for geochemical analyses. We investigated the link between ontogeny and geochemical signatures recorded in different parts of the shell. To reach this aim, we analysed the elemental (Ca, Mg, Sr, Na) and stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) compositions of five recent brachiopod species (Magellania venosa, Liothyrella uva, Aerothyris kerguelensis, Liothyrella neozelanica and Gryphus vitreus), spanning broad geographical and environmental ranges (Chile, Antarctica, Indian Ocean, New Zealand and Italy) and having different shell layer successions (two-layer and three-layer shells). We observed similar patterns in the ventral and dorsal valves of these two groups, but different ontogenetic trends by the two- and three-layer shells in their trace element and stable isotope records. Our investigation led us to conclude that the optimal region to sample for geochemical and isotope analyses is the middle part of the mid-section of the shell, avoiding the primary layer, posterior and anterior parts as well as the outermost part of the secondary layer in recent brachiopods. Also, the outermost and innermost rims of shells should be avoided due to diagenetic impacts on fossil brachiopods.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Shells of brachiopods are excellent archives for environmental reconstructions in the recent and distant past as their microstructure and geochemistry respond to climate and environmental forcings. We studied the morphology and size of the basic structural unit, the secondary layer fibre, of the shells of several extant brachiopod taxa to derive a model correlating microstructural patterns to environmental conditions. Twenty-one adult specimens of six recent brachiopod species adapted to different environmental conditions, from Antarctica, to New Zealand, to the Mediterranean Sea, were chosen for microstructural analysis using SEM, TEM and EBSD. We conclude that: 1) there is no significant difference in the shape and size of the fibres between ventral and dorsal valves, 2) there is an ontogenetic trend in the shape and size of the fibres, as they become larger, wider, and flatter with increasing age. This indicates that the fibrous layer produced in the later stages of growth, which is recommended by the literature to be the best material for geochemical analyses, has a different morphostructure and probably a lower organic content than that produced earlier in life. In two species of the same genus living in seawater with different temperature and carbonate saturation state, a relationship emerged between the microstructure and environmental conditions. Fibres of the polar Liothyrella uva tend to be smaller, rounder and less convex than those of the temperate Liothyrella neozelanica, suggesting a relationship between microstructural size, shell organic matter content, ambient seawater temperature and calcite saturation state.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-02-12
    Description: In the last few decades and in the near future CO2-induced ocean acidification is potentially a big threat to marine calcite-shelled animals (e.g. brachiopods, bivalves, corals and gastropods). Despite the great number of studies focusing on the effects of acidification on shell growth, metabolism, shell dissolution and shell repair, the consequences for biomineral formation remain poorly understood. Only a few studies have addressed the impact of ocean acidification on shell microstructure and geochemistry. In this study, a detailed microstructure and stable isotope geochemistry investigation was performed on nine adult brachiopod specimens of Magellania venosa (Dixon, 1789). These were grown in the natural environment as well as in controlled culturing experiments under different pH conditions (ranging from 7.35 to 8.15 ± 0.05) over different time intervals (214 to 335 days). Details of shell microstructural features, such as thickness of the primary layer, density and size of endopunctae and morphology of the basic structural unit of the secondary layer were analysed using scanning electron microscopy. Stable isotope compositions (δ13C and δ18O) were tested from the secondary shell layer along shell ontogenetic increments in both dorsal and ventral valves. Based on our comprehensive dataset, we observed that, under low pH conditions, M. venosa produced a more organic-rich shell with higher density of and larger endopunctae, and smaller secondary layer fibres. Also, increasingly negative δ13C and δ18O values are recorded by the shell produced during culturing and are related to the CO2 source in the culture set-up. Both the microstructural changes and the stable isotope results are similar to observations on brachiopods from the fossil record and strongly support the value of brachiopods as robust archives of proxies for studying ocean acidification events in the geologic past.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Throughout the last few decades and in the near future CO2–induced ocean acidification is potentially a big threat to marine calcite-shelled animals (e.g., brachiopods, bivalves, corals and gastropods). Despite the great number of studies focusing on the effects of acidification on shell growth, metabolism, shell dissolution and shell repair, the consequences on biomineral formation remain poorly understood, and only few studies addressed contemporarily the impact of acidification on shell microstructure and geochemistry. In this study, a detailed microstructure and stable isotope geochemistry investigation was performed on nine adult brachiopod specimens of Magellania venosa (Dixon, 1789), grown in the natural environment as well as in controlled culturing experiments at different pH conditions (ranging 7.35 to 8.15±0.05) over different time intervals (214 to 335 days). Details of shell microstructural features, such as thickness of the primary layer, density and size of endopunctae and morphology of the basic structural unit of the secondary layer were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stable isotope compositions (δ13C and δ18O) were tested from the secondary shell layer along shell ontogenetic increments in both dorsal and ventral valves. Based on our comprehensive dataset, we observed that, under low pH conditions, M. venosa produced a more organic-rich shell with higher density of and larger endopunctae, and smaller secondary layer fibres, when subjected to about one year of culturing. Also, increasingly negative δ13C and δ18O values are recorded by the shell produced during culturing and are related to the CO2–source in the culture setup. Both the microstructural changes and the stable isotope results are similar to observations on brachiopods from the fossil record and strongly support the value of brachiopods as robust archives of proxies for studying ocean acidification events in the geologic past.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Format: archive
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-11-01
    Description: The Lopingian is one of the fastest rising periods of seawater strontium isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) in earth history, and its mechanisms and increasing rates of the 87Sr/86Sr evolution were still disputed widely. These disputations among researchers were caused mainly by timeframe selection (sections’ thickness or data of radiometric ages), and different stratigraphic boundaries and un-upmost dated ages. This paper examined published 87Sr/86Sr data of the Lopingian, and projected them on timescales based on evolutionary and age constrained conodonts fossils. 87Sr/86Sr evolution vs fossil constraining timescales was re-established in this period. This research suggests: (1) 87Sr/86Sr excursion projects on fossil zones can truly support 87Sr/86Sr evolutionary pattern in the period; (2) 87Sr/86Sr evolution provides a new approach for stratigraphic research of marine carbonate sections in lieu of biostratigraphic data; (3) 87Sr/86Sr stratigraphy works on marine carbonate sections of different sedimentation rates even between different basins; (4) the 87Sr/86Sr data and its shift was dependent on samples materials and chemical treatment methods; (5) the increasing rate of marine water 87Sr/86Sr in the Late Permian is suggested as 5.4×10−5/Ma or slightly lower; (6) sedimentation age and its 87Sr/86Sr of the Lopingian marine carbonate suggested as: D PRO=259-( R S−0.70695)/5.4×10−5±1 Ma. ©2015 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 1674-7313
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-1897
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: In the last few decades and in the near future CO2-induced ocean acidification is potentially a big threat to marine calcite-shelled animals (e.g. brachiopods, bivalves, corals and gastropods). Despite the great number of studies focusing on the effects of acidification on shell growth, metabolism, shell dissolution and shell repair, the consequences for biomineral formation remain poorly understood. Only a few studies have addressed the impact of ocean acidification on shell microstructure and geochemistry. In this study, a detailed microstructure and stable isotope geochemistry investigation was performed on nine adult brachiopod specimens of Magellania venosa (Dixon, 1789). These were grown in the natural environment as well as in controlled culturing experiments under different pH conditions (ranging from 7.35 to 8.15±0.05) over different time intervals (214 to 335 days). Details of shell microstructural features, such as thickness of the primary layer, density and size of endopunctae and morphology of the basic structural unit of the secondary layer were analysed using scanning electron microscopy. Stable isotope compositions (δ13C and δ18O) were tested from the secondary shell layer along shell ontogenetic increments in both dorsal and ventral valves. Based on our comprehensive dataset, we observed that, under low-pH conditions, M. venosa produced a more organic-rich shell with higher density of and larger endopunctae, and smaller secondary layer fibres. Also, increasingly negative δ13C and δ18O values are recorded by the shell produced during culturing and are related to the CO2 source in the culture set-up. Both the microstructural changes and the stable isotope results are similar to observations on brachiopods from the fossil record and strongly support the value of brachiopods as robust archives of proxies for studying ocean acidification events in the geologic past.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-24
    Description: Throughout the last few decades and in the near future CO2–induced ocean acidification is potentially a big threat to marine calcite-shelled animals (e.g., brachiopods, bivalves, corals and gastropods). Despite the great number of studies focusing on the effects of acidification on shell growth, metabolism, shell dissolution and shell repair, the consequences on biomineral formation remain poorly understood, and only few studies addressed contemporarily the impact of acidification on shell microstructure and geochemistry. In this study, a detailed microstructure and stable isotope geochemistry investigation was performed on nine adult brachiopod specimens of Magellania venosa (Dixon, 1789), grown in the natural environment as well as in controlled culturing experiments at different pH conditions (ranging 7.35 to 8.15±0.05) over different time intervals (214 to 335 days). Details of shell microstructural features, such as thickness of the primary layer, density and size of endopunctae and morphology of the basic structural unit of the secondary layer were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stable isotope compositions (δ13C and δ18O) were tested from the secondary shell layer along shell ontogenetic increments in both dorsal and ventral valves. Based on our comprehensive dataset, we observed that, under low pH conditions, M. venosa produced a more organic-rich shell with higher density of and larger endopunctae, and smaller secondary layer fibres, when subjected to about one year of culturing. Also, increasingly negative δ13C and δ18O values are recorded by the shell produced during culturing and are related to the CO2–source in the culture setup. Both the microstructural changes and the stable isotope results are similar to observations on brachiopods from the fossil record and strongly support the value of brachiopods as robust archives of proxies for studying ocean acidification events in the geologic past.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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