ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Planned to fly in 2014, the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) would see the whole sunlit half of the Earth from the L 1 Lagrangian point and would provide simultaneous data on cloud and aerosol properties with its Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC). EPIC images the Earth on a 2Kx2K CCD array, which gives a horizontal resolution of about 10 km at nadir. A filter-wheel provides consecutive images in 10 spectral channels ranging from the UV to the near-IR, including the oxygen A and B bands. This paper presents a study of retrieving cloud height with EPIC's oxygen A and B bands. As the first step, we analyzed the effect of cloud optical and geometrical properties, sun-view geometry, and surface type on the cloud height determination. Second, we developed two cloud height retrieval algorithms that are based on the Mixed Lambertian-Equivalent Reflectivity (MLER) concept: one utilizes the absolute radiances at the Oxygen A and B bands and the other uses the radiance ratios between the absorption and reference channels of the two bands. Third, we applied the algorithms to the simulated EPIC data and to the data from SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) observations. Results show that oxygen A and B bands complement each other: A band is better suited for retrievals over ocean, while B band is better over vegetated land due to a much darker surface. Improvements to the MLER model, including corrections to surface contribution and photon path inside clouds, will also be discussed.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC.ABS.01059.2012 , 2012 Intrnational Radiation Symposium; Aug 06, 2012 - Aug 08, 2012; Berlin; Germany
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Laser beams emitted from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), as well as other space-borne laser instruments, can only penetrate clouds to a limit of a few optical depths. As a result, only optical depths of thinner clouds (〈 about 3 for GLAS) are retrieved from the reflected lidar signal. This paper presents a comprehensive study of possible retrievals of optical depth of thick clouds using solar background light and treating GLAS as a solar radiometer. To do so we first calibrate the reflected solar radiation received by the photon-counting detectors of GLAS' 532 nm channel, which is the primary channel for atmospheric products. The solar background radiation is regarded as a noise to be subtracted in the retrieval process of the lidar products. However, once calibrated, it becomes a signal that can be used in studying the properties of optically thick clouds. In this paper, three calibration methods are presented: (I) calibration with coincident airborne and GLAS observations; (2) calibration with coincident Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and GLAS observations of deep convective clouds; (3) calibration from the first principles using optical depth of thin water clouds over ocean retrieved by GLAS active remote sensing. Results from the three methods agree well with each other. Cloud optical depth (COD) is retrieved from the calibrated solar background signal using a one-channel retrieval. Comparison with COD retrieved from GOES during GLAS overpasses shows that the average difference between the two retrievals is 24%. As an example, the COD values retrieved from GLAS solar background are illustrated for a marine stratocumulus cloud field that is too thick to be penetrated by the GLAS laser. Based on this study, optical depths for thick clouds will be provided as a supplementary product to the existing operational GLAS cloud products in future GLAS data releases.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Satellite lidar remote sensing of the atmosphere has been ongoing for more than a decade providing the opportunity to study atmospheric processes in great detail. Here we use 12 years of CloudAerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization measurements to derive a climatology of blowing snow layer height, optical depth, and frequency over Antarctica for the period 20062017. Limited to the vertical resolution of the CloudAerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization data, our climatology includes all blowing snow layers greater than about 30 m in thickness for clear or optically thin cloud regions. Our results show that blowing snow occurs over 50% of the time over large regions with frequencies often exceeding 70%. The overall pattern of blowing snow frequency is fairly consistent from year to year, but there are regional differences. We examined the data for temporal trends in blowing snow properties and found significant trends only in blowing snow frequency. A small area of East Antarctica with generally low blowing snow frequency shows a statistically significant increase in blowing snow frequency ranging from 10% to 100% per decade. No significant trends in frequency were found in regions of high (〉50%) blowing snow frequency, and only isolated small areas exhibited a decrease in frequency through the study period.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN64178 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (ISSN 2169-897X) (e-ISSN 2169-8996); 123; 18; 10,301-10,313
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The separation of cloud and clear scenes is usually one of the first steps in satellite data analysis. Before deriving a geophysical product, almost every satellite mission requires a cloud mask to label a scene as either clear or cloudy through a cloud detection procedure. For clear scenes, products such as surface properties may be retrieved; for cloudy scenes, scientist can focus on studying the cloud properties. Hence the quality of cloud detection directly affects the quality of most satellite operational and research products. This is certainly true for the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (lCESat-2), which is the successor to the ICESat-l. As a top priority mission, ICESat-2 will continue to provide measurements of ice sheets and sea ice elevation on a global scale. Studies have shown that clouds can significantly affect the accuracy of the retrieved results. For example, some of the photons (a photon is a basic unit of light) in the laser beam will be scattered by cloud particles on its way. So instead of traveling in a straight line, these photons are scattered sideways and have traveled a longer path. This will result in biases in ice sheet elevation measurements. Hence cloud screening must be done and be done accurately before the retrievals.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC.JA.5748.2011
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8 to approximately 48) Tg a(exp -1) or 29 (8 to approximately 50) kg ha(exp -1) a(exp -1). The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.0060.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7 to approximately 39) g P ha(exp -1) a(exp -1) to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input largely compensates the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN20912 , Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 1944-8007); 42; 6; 1984-1991
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: African dust can transport across the tropical Atlantic and reach the Amazon basin, exerting far-reaching impacts on climate in downwind regions. The transported dust influences the surface-atmosphere interactions and cloud and precipitation processes through perturbing the surface radiative budget and atmospheric radiative heating and acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei. Dust also influences biogeochemical cycle and climate through providing nutrients vital to the productivity of ocean biomass and Amazon forests. Assessing these climate impacts relies on an accurate quantification of dust transport and deposition. Currently model simulations show extremely large diversity, which calls for a need of observational constraints. Kaufman et al. (2005) estimated from MODIS aerosol measurements that about 144 Tg of dust is deposited into the tropical Atlantic and 50 Tg of dust into the Amazon in 2001. This estimated dust import to Amazon is a factor of 3-4 higher than other observations and models. However, several studies have argued that the oversimplified characterization of dust vertical profile in the study would have introduced large uncertainty and very likely a high bias. In this study we quantify the trans-Atlantic dust transport and deposition by using 7 years (2007-2013) observations from CALIPSO lidar. CALIPSO acquires high-resolution aerosol extinction and depolarization profiles in both cloud-free and above-cloud conditions. The unique CALIPSO capability of profiling aerosols above clouds offers an unprecedented opportunity of examining uncertainties associated with the use of MODIS clear-sky data. Dust is separated from other types of aerosols using the depolarization measurements. We estimated that on the basis of 7-year average, 118142 Tg of dust is deposited into the tropical Atlantic and 3860 Tg of dust into the Amazon basin. Substantial interannual variations are observed during the period, with the maximum to minimum ratio of about 1.6 and 2.5 for the deposition to the tropical Atlantic and Amazon, respectively. The MODIS-based estimates appear to fall within the range of CALIPSO-based estimates; and the difference between MODIS and CALIPSO estimates can be largely attributed to the interannual variability, which is corroborated by long-term surface dust concentration observations in the tropical Atlantic. Considering that CALIPSO generally tends to underestimate the aerosol loading, our estimate is likely to represent a low bound for the dust transport and deposition estimate. The finding suggests that models have substantial biases and considerable effort is needed to improve model simulations of dust cycle.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN15263 , iLEAPS Science Conference; May 12, 2014 - May 16, 2014; Nanjing; China
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, which contain enough ice to raise sea level by about 7 and 60 m, respectively, are losing mass at an increasing rate. To acquire continuous information of the cryosphere, after the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) (2003-2010), NASA is actively planning for the ICESat-2 mission. Both ICESat and ICESat-2 are space-borne lidar altimetry systems. The systems measure the time of flight of the arriving photons that are reflected by the surface to deduce the elevation of the underlying terrain. As one of NASA's top priority missions, ICESat-2 is scheduled to launch in 2016. One of the major science goals of ICESat-2 is to quantify the ice sheet mass balance to determine its contributions to the sea level change and its impacts on ocean circulation (Abdalati et al. 2010). Compared to ICESat, which operates at 40 Hz and records the reflected laser energy as a waveform, the significantly improved ICESat-2 lidar employs a 532 nm micro-pulse photon counting system that operates at a high frequency of 10kHz with single photon detectability (Yang et al. 2012). To achieve its science goals, ICESat-2 requires the ability of detecting the elevation change with an accuracy of 0.2 cm/year over the entire ice sheet. Since every photon emitted by the lidar system will travel through the atmosphere, clouds can certainly affect the flight time of the arriving photons. Forward scattering by cloud particles increases the photon path length, thus resulting in biases in ice sheet elevation measurements known as atmospheric path delay (Duta et al. 2001, Yang et al. 2010, 2011). To ensure the accuracy of ICESat-2 surface elevation measurements, it is critical to understand how clouds would affect the travel time of arriving photons. In this talk, we will first present a framework that simulates the behavior of a space-borne 532 mn micro-pulse photon counting lidar in cloudy and clear atmospheres. To investigate the process of laser propagation through clouds, a 3-D Monte Carlo radiative transfer model is used to simulate the photon path distribution and the Poisson distribution is adopted for the number of photon returns. Since the photon counting system only registers the time of the first arriving photon within the detector "dead time", the retrieved average surface elevation tends to bias towards higher values. This is known as the first photon bias. With the scenarios simulated here, the first photon bias for clear sky is about 6.5 cm. Clouds affect surface altimetry in two ways: (1) cloud attenuation lowers the average number of arriving photons and hence reduces the first photon bias; (2) cloud forward scattering increases the photon path length and makes the surface appear further away from the satellite. Compared to clear sky, the average surface elevation detected by the photon counting system for cloudy sky with optical depth 1.0 is 4.0 to 6.0 cm lower for the simulations conducted. The effect of surface roughness on the accuracy of elevation retrievals will also discussed.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC.ABS.01060.2012 , 5th Shanhai International Symposium on Nuclear Sciences and Applications; Jun 27, 2012 - Jul 03, 2012; Shanghai; China
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Blowing snow processes commonly occur over the earth's ice sheets when the 10 mile wind speed exceeds a threshold value. These processes play a key role in the sublimation and redistribution of snow thereby influencing the surface mass balance. Prior field studies and modeling results have shown the importance of blowing snow sublimation and transport on the surface mass budget and hydrological cycle of high-latitude regions. For the first time, we present continent-wide estimates of blowing snow sublimation and transport over Antarctica for the period 2006-2016 based on direct observation of blowing snow events. We use an improved version of the blowing snow detection algorithm developed for previous work that uses atmospheric backscatter measurements obtained from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar aboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) satellite. The blowing snow events identified by CALIPSO and meteorological fields from MERRA-2 are used to compute the blowing snow sublimation and transport rates. Our results show that maximum sublimation occurs along and slightly inland of the coastline. This is contrary to the observed maximum blowing snow frequency which occurs over the interior. The associated temperature and moisture reanalysis fields likely contribute to the spatial distribution of the maximum sublimation values. However, the spatial pattern of the sublimation rate over Antarctica is consistent with modeling studies and precipitation estimates. Overall, our results show that the 2006-2016 Antarctica average integrated blowing snow sublimation is about 393 +/- 196 Gt yr(exp -1), which is considerably larger than previous model-derived estimates. We find maximum blowing snow transport amount of 5 Mt km-1 yr(exp -1) over parts of East Antarctica and estimate that the average snow transport from continent to ocean is about 3.7 Gt yr(exp -1). These continent-wide estimates are the first of their kind and can be used to help model and constrain the surface mass budget over Antarctica.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN51641 , The Cryosphere (e-ISSN 1994-0424); 11; 6; 2555-2569
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Snow grain size is an important parameter for cryosphere studies. As a proof of concept, this paper presents an approach to retrieve this parameter over Greenland, East and West Antarctica ice sheets from surface reflectances observed with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) at 1064 nanometers. Spaceborne lidar observations overcome many of the disadvantages in passive remote sensing, including difficulties in cloud screening and low sun angle limitations; hence tend to provide more accurate and stable retrievals. Results from the GLAS L2A campaign, which began on 25 September and lasted until 19 November, 2003, show that the mode of the grain size distribution over Greenland is the largest (approximately 300 microns) among the three, West Antarctica is the second (220 microns) and East Antarctica is the smallest (190 microns). Snow grain sizes are larger over the coastal regions compared to inland the ice sheets. These results are consistent with previous studies. Applying the broadband snow surface albedo parameterization scheme developed by Garder and Sharp (2010) to the retrieved snow grain size, ice sheet surface albedo is also derived. In the future, more accurate retrievals can be achieved with multiple wavelengths lidar observations.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41115 , Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (ISSN 0022-4073); 188; 159-164
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This is the second part of a study on how temporal sampling frequency affects satellite retrievals in support of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission. Continuing from Part 1, which looked at Earth's radiation budget, this paper presents the effect of sampling frequency on DSCOVR-derived cloud fraction. The output from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Nature Run is used as the "truth". The effect of temporal resolution on potential DSCOVR observations is assessed by subsampling the full Nature Run data. A set of metrics, including uncertainty and absolute error in the subsampled time series, correlation between the original and the subsamples, and Fourier analysis have been used for this study. Results show that, for a given sampling frequency, the uncertainties in the annual mean cloud fraction of the sunlit half of the Earth are larger over land than over ocean. Analysis of correlation coefficients between the subsamples and the original time series demonstrates that even though sampling at certain longer time intervals may not increase the uncertainty in the mean, the subsampled time series is further and further away from the "truth" as the sampling interval becomes larger and larger. Fourier analysis shows that the simulated DSCOVR cloud fraction has underlying periodical features at certain time intervals, such as 8, 12, and 24 h. If the data is subsampled at these frequencies, the uncertainties in the mean cloud fraction are higher. These results provide helpful insights for the DSCOVR temporal sampling strategy.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN38805 , Remote Sensing (e-ISSN 2072-4292); 8; 5; 431
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...