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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast ; Mating ; Sexual agglutination ; a-Specific mutation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Seven α-specific mutants specifically defective in sexual agglutinability were isolated. The other α mating functions exhibited by these mutants, designated sag mutants, such as the production of α pheromone and response to a mating pheromone, were normal. While the MATα sag1 cells did not agglutinate with wild-type a cells, the MATα sag1 cells did, indicating that the SAG1 gene is expressed only in α cells. The mutations were semi-dominant and fell into a single complementation group, SAG1, which was mapped near met3 on chromosome X. Complementation analysis showed that sag1 and aga1, the latter being a previously reported α-specific mutation, were mutations in the same gene.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-5835
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-5835
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: calcium ; regucalcin ; calmodulin ; cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase ; rat liver
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of regucalcin, a calcium-binding protein isolated from rat liver cytosol, on Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide (AMP) phosphodiesterase activity in rat liver cytosol was investigated. The addition of Ca2+ (50 µM) and calmodulin 160 U/ml in the enzyme reaction mixture caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity. This increase was inhibited by the presence of regucalcin (0.5-3.0 µM); the inhibitory effect was complete at 1.0 µM. Regucalcin (1.0 µM) did not have an appreciable effect on basal activity without Ca2+ and calmodulin. The inhibitory effect of regucalcin was still evident even at several fold higher concentrations of calmodulin (160–480 U/ml). However, regucalcin (1.0 µM) did not inhibit Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity in the presence of 100 and 200 µM Ca2+ added. Meanwhile, Cd2 (25–100 µM)-induced decrease in Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity was not reversed by the presence of regucalcin (1.0 µM). The present results suggest that regucalcin can regulate Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity due to binding Ca2+ in liver cells.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: regucalcin ; calcium-binding protein ; gene expression ; diabetic state ; ethanol ; liver injury
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The alteration in calcium-binding protein regucalcin in the liver and serum of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic state or ethanol ingestion was investigated. STZ (6.0 mg/100 g body weight) was subcutaneously administered in rats, and 1 or 3 weeks later they were sacrificed by bleeding. Liver regucalcin mRNA levels were not clearly altered by the diabetic state, as evidenced by Northern blotting using regucalcin cDNA (0.9 kb of open reading frame). Based on enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) with rabbit-anti-regucalcin IgG, hepatic regucalcin concentration was decreased about 50% of control levels by STZ treatment. However, serum regucalcin concentration was not significantly altered by STZ treatment. Meanwhile, when rats ingested ethanol (10 and 30%) in the drinking water for 2 weeks, liver regucalcin mRNA levels were clearly increased, although hepatic regucalcin concentration was significantly decreased. Serum regucalcin concentration was not appreciably altered. Serum transaminases (GOT and GPT) activities were significantly increased at 1 or 3 weeks after STZ administration in rats, while their activities were not altered by ethanol ingestion. The present study demonstrates that hepatic regucalcin concentration is decreased independent of mRNA expression in the STZ-diabetes and during ethanol ingestion in rats.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: regucalcin ; calcium-binding protein ; gene expression ; rat kidney cortex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The expression of calcium-binding protein regucalcin mRNA in the kidney cortex of rats was investigated. The change of regucalcin mRNA levels was analyzed by Northern blotting using liver regucalcin complementary DNA (0.9 kb of open-reading frame). Regucalcin mRNA was expressed in the kidney cortex, and this expression was clearly increased by a single intraperitoneal administration of calcium chloride solution (5–15 mg Ca/100 g body weight) in rats; this increase was remarkable at 60–120 min after the administration. Thyroparathyroidectomy (TPTX) caused a slight decrease of regucalcin mRNA levels in the kidney cortex. However, the administration of calcium (10 mg/100 g) in TPTX rats produced a clear increase of regucalcin mRNA levels in the kidney cortex. The subcutaneous administration of calcitonin (10–100 MRC mU/100 g) or parathyroid hormone [1–34] (1–10 U/100 g) in TPTX rats which received calcium (10 mg/100 g) administration did not cause an appreciable alteration of regucalcin mRNA levels in the kidney cortex, suggesting that the mRNA expression is not stimulated by calcium-regulating hormones. The administration of trifluoperazine (TFP; 5 mg/100 g), an inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin action, completely blocked the expression of regucalcin mRNA stimulated by calcium administration. Now, calcium content in the kidney cortex was significantly elevated by a single intraperitpneal administration of calcium (10 mg/100 g) in rats. The present study clearly demonstrates that the expression of regucalcin mRNA in the kidney cortex is stimulated by calcium administration in rats. This expression may be mediated through Ca2+/calmodulin action in the kidney cortex.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: regucalcin ; (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase ; calcium pump ; plasma membrane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of regucalcin, a calcium-binding protein isolated from rat liver cytoplasm, on ATP-dependent calcium transport in the plasma membrane vesicles of rat liver was investigated. (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase activity in the liver plasma membranes was significantly increased by the presence of regucalcin (0.1-0.5 \sgmaelig;M) in the enzyme reaction mixture. This increase was completely inhibited by the presence of sulfhydryl group modifying reagent Nethylmaleimide (5.0 mM NEM) or digitonin (0.04%), which can solubilize the membranous lipids. When ATP-dependent calcium uptake by liver plasma membrane vesicles was measured by using 45CaCl2, the presence of regucalcin (0.1-0.5 \sgmaelig;M) in the reaction mixture caused a significant increase in the 45Ca2+ uptake. This increase was about 2-fold with 0.5 \sgmaelig;M regucalcin addition. An appreciable increase was seen by 5 min incubation with regucalcin addition. The regucalcin-enhanced ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake by the plasma membrane vesicles was completely inhibited by the presence of NEM (5.0 mM) or digitonin (0.04%). These results demonstrate that regucalcin activates (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase in the liver plasma membranes and that it can stimulate ATP-dependent calcium transport across the plasma membranes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: calcium ; calcium transport ; brain ; calcium-regulating hormone ; calcium-antagonist ; energy dependency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The characterization of calcium accumulation in the brain of rats administered orally calcium chloride solution was investigated. Rats received a single oral administration of calcium (15–50 mg/100 g body weight), and they were sacrificed by bleeding-between 15 and 120 min after the administration. The administration of calcium (50 mg/100 g) produced a significant increase in serum calcium concentration and a corresponding elevation of brain calcium content, indicating that the transport of calcium into the brain is associated with the elevation of serum calcium levels. The increase in brain calcium content by calcium administration was not appreciably altered by the pretreatment with Ca2+ channel blockers (verapamil or diltiazem with the doses of 1.5 and 3.0 mg/100 g). In thyroparathyroidectomized rats, the administration of calcium (50 mg/100 g) caused a significant increase in brain calcium content, indicating that calcium-regulating hormones do not participate in the brain calcium transport. Now, brain calcium content was clearly elevated by fasting (overnight), although serum calcium level was not significantly altered. Calcium administration to fasted rats induced a further elevation of brain calcium content as compared with that of control (fasted) rats. The fasting-induced increase in brain calcium content was appreciably restored by refeeding. This restoration was also seen by the oral administration of glucose (0.4 g/100 g) to fasted rats. The present study demonstrates that serum calcium is transported to brain, and that the increased brain calcium is released promptly. The release of calcium from brain may be involved in energy metabolism, and this release may be weakened by the reduction of glucose supply into brain. The finding suggests a physiological significance of energy-dependent mechanism in the regulation of brain calcium.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: regucalcin ; (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase ; calcium pump ; carbon tetrachloride ; liver injury ; plasma membrane ; rat liver
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The alteration of the plasma membrane (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase activity in the liver of rats administered orally carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) solution was investigated. Rats received a single oral administration of CCl4 (10, 25 and 50%, 1.0 ml/100 g body weight), and 3 or 24 h later they were sacrificed. CCl4 administration caused a remarkable elevation of liver calcium content and a corresponding increase in liver plasma membrane (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase activity, indicating that the increased Ca2+ pump activity is partly involved in calcium accumulation in liver cells. Moreover, the participation in regucalcin, which is an intracellular activating factor on the enzyme, was examined by using anti-regucalcin IgG. The plasma membrane (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase activity increased by CCl4 administration was not entirely inhibited by the presence of anti-regucalcin IgG (1.0 and 2.5 ug/ml) in the enzyme reaction mixture. However, the effect of regucalcin (0.25–1.0 uM) to activate (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase in the liver plasma membranes of normal rats was not revealed in the liver plasma membranes obtained from CCl4-administered rats. Also, the effect of regucalcin was not seen when the plasma membranes were washed with 1.0 mM EGTA, indicating that the disappearance of regucalcin effect is not dependent on calcium binding to the plasma membranes due to liver calcium accumulation. Now, the presence of dithiothreitol (5 mM) or heparin (20 ug/ml) caused a remarkable elevation of the plasma membrane (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase activity in the liver obtained from CCl4-administered rats. Thus, the regucalcin effect differed from that of dithiothreitol or heparin. The present study suggests that the impairment of regucalcin effect on Ca2+ pump activity in liver plasma membranes is partly contribute to hepatic calcium accumulation induced by liver injury with CCl4 administration.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: regucalcin ; calcium ; gene expression ; kidney damage ; rat kidney cortex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The alteration of Ca2+-binding protein regucalcin mRNA expression in the kidney cortex of rats administered cisplatin and cephaloridine, which can induce kidney damage, was investigated. Cisplatin (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/100 g body weight) or cephaloridine (25, 50 and 100 mg/100 g) was intraperitoneally administered in rats, and 1, 2 and 3 days later they were sacrificed. The alteration in serum findings after the administration of cisplatin (1.0 mg/100 g) or cephaloridine (50 and 100 mg/100 g) demonstrated chemically induced kidney damage; blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration increased markedly and serum inorganic phosphorus or calcium concentration decreased significantly. Moreover, the administration of cisplatin (1.0 mg/100 g) or cephaloridine (100 mg/100 g) caused a remarkable increase of calcium content in the kidney cortex of rats, indicating kidney damage. The expression of regucalcin mRNA in the kidney cortex was markedly reduced by the administration of cisplatin or cephaloridine in rats, when the mRNA levels were analyzed by Northern blotting using rat liver regucalcin cDNA (0.9 kb). The mRNA decreases were seen with the used lowest dose of cisplatin or cephaloridine. The present study clearly demonstrates that the mRNA expression of Ca2+-binding protein regucalcin in the kidney cortex of rats is decreased by chemically induced kidney damage.
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