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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-18
    Description: Epilepsy is a common neurological disease, and approximately 30% of patients do not respond adequately to antiepileptic drug treatment. Recent studies suggest that G protein–coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is expressed in the central nervous system and is involved in the regulation of neurological function. However, the impact of GPR40 on epileptic seizures remains unclear. In this study, we first reported that GPR40 expression was increased in epileptic brains. In the kainic acid–induced epilepsy model, GPR40 activation after status epilepticus alleviated epileptic activity, whereas GPR40 inhibition showed the opposite effect. In the pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling model, susceptibility to epilepsy was reduced with GPR40 activation and increased with GPR40 inhibition. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that GPR40 affected N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor–mediated synaptic transmission. Moreover, GPR40 regulated NR2A and NR2B expression on the surface of neurons. In addition, endocytosis of NMDA receptors and binding of GPR40 with NR2A and NR2B can be regulated by GPR40. Together, our findings indicate that GPR40 modulates epileptic seizures, providing a novel antiepileptic target.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: In order to study the influencing factors on the shear strength of asphalt mortar with high viscosity, many different compositions are considered to analyse the shear strength of asphalt mortar, such as asphalt from different resource, mineral powder, wimble weight, temperature and ratio of filler to bitumen. The results indicate that among these factors, the influence of wimble strength is the smallest, which can be ignored. The shear strength of asphalt mortar decreases with increasing temperature from 25°C∼50°C. Meanwhile it changes with the ratio of filler to bitumen by 1.2 under the temperature changing from 25°C∼35°C. Also with the rising ratio between filler and bitumen, the sheer strength of mortar increases. However, the temperature sensitivity changes differently with its peak. Compared to the type of mineral powder, the influence of asphalt resource on shear strength and temperature sensitivity are more significant.
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: In order to study the rheological and rotary viscosity characteristics of asphalt mortar with high viscosity containing different asphalt and filler, the component, filler-bitumen ratio and temperature are considered. The results show that among these factors, viscosity and specific surface area are the main factors that influence the ability of resistance to high temperature deformation. The temperature sensitivity and G*/sinδ increase with increasing filler-bitumen ratio.The growth rate changes corresponding to the filler-bitumen ratio of 1.2. A good exponential relationship exists between G*/sinδ and Brookfield rotary viscosity at 135°C and 150°C. Thus, the results of Brookfield rotary viscosity can be used to estimate the influence of filler-bitumen ratio to asphalt mortar characteristics at high temperature instead of filler-bitumen ratio to asphalt mortar characteristics at high temperature instead of G*/sinδ.
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-14
    Description: Spin superfluid is a novel emerging quantum matter arising from the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of spin-1 bosons. We demonstrate the spin superfluid ground state in canted antiferromagnetic Cr 2 O 3 thin film at low temperatures via nonlocal spin transport. A large enhancement of the nonlocal spin signal is observed below ~20 K, and it saturates from ~5 down to 2 K. We show that the spins can propagate over very long distances (~20 μm) in such spin superfluid ground state and that the nonlocal spin signal decreases very slowly as the spacing increases with an inverse relationship, which is consistent with theoretical prediction. Furthermore, spin superfluidity has been investigated in the canted antiferromagnetic phase of the (11 2{macron} 0)-oriented Cr 2 O 3 film, where the magnetic field dependence of the associated critical temperature follows a 2 / 3 power law near the critical point. The experimental demonstration of the spin superfluid ground state in canted antiferromagnet will be extremely important for the fundamental physics on the BEC of spin-1 bosons and paves the way for future spin supercurrent devices, such as spin-Josephson junctions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-09-14
    Description: Antigen recognition by the T-cell receptor (TCR) is a hallmark of the adaptive immune system. When the TCR engages a peptide bound to the restricting major histocompatibility complex molecule (pMHC), it transmits a signal via the associated CD3 complex. How the extracellular antigen recognition event leads to intracellular phosphorylation remains...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-09-10
    Description: The arid climate of many regions within Central Asia often leads to excellent archaeological preservation, especially in sealed funerary contexts, allowing for ancient DNA analyses. While geneticists have looked at human remains, clothes, tools, and other burial objects are often neglected. In this paper, we present the results of an ancient DNA study on Bronze Age leather objects excavated from tombs of the Wupu cemetery in the Hami Oasis and Yanghai cemetery in the Turpan Oasis, both in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of northwestern China. In addition to species identification of goat ( Capra aegagrus/hircus ), sheep ( Ovis orientalis/aries ), and cattle ( Bos primigenius/taurus ), mitochondrial haplogroups were determined for several samples. Our results show that Bronze Age domesticated goats and sheep from the Hami and Turpan oases possessed identical or closely related haplotypes to modern domestic animals of this area. The absence of leather produced from wild animals emphasizes the importance of animal husbandry in the cultures of Wupu and Yanghai.
    Print ISSN: 0959-6836
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-0911
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Sage
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-22
    Description: Recently, aluminium (Al) alloys are increasingly used in the automobile and aerospace industries because of their light weight and corrosion resistance properties. However, the applications of these materials are limited due to their poor formability especially at room temperature. Although hydroforming technology is one of the approaches used to improve the formability of Al alloys, it still cannot fulfil the requirements of designers and manufacturers to form high-quality complex shaped components. It has been found that high-speed forming is able to improve the formability of low plasticity metals at room temperature. Thus, impact hydroforming (IHF) technology is proposed by combining the advantages of high-speed forming and hydroforming, and it was used to address the issues of quasi-static hydroforming. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of IHF on the formability of AA5A06 sheet metal. An IHF bulge experiment setup was developed by making use of...
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-04-19
    Description: Covariate measurement error and missing responses are typical features in longitudinal data analysis. There has been extensive research on either covariate measurement error or missing responses, but relatively little work has been done to address both simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a simple method for the marginal analysis of longitudinal data with time-varying covariates, some of which are measured with error, while the response is subject to missingness. Our method has a number of appealing properties: assumptions on the model are minimal, with none needed about the distribution of the mismeasured covariate; implementation is straightforward and its applicability is broad. We provide both theoretical justification and numerical results.
    Print ISSN: 0006-3444
    Electronic ISSN: 1464-3510
    Topics: Biology , Mathematics , Medicine
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  • 9
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    Oxford University Press
    Publication Date: 2012-05-22
    Description: We propose a multiple imputation estimator for parameter estimation in a quantile regression model when some covariates are missing at random. The estimation procedure fully utilizes the entire dataset to achieve increased efficiency, and the resulting coefficient estimators are root- n consistent and asymptotically normal. To protect against possible model misspecification, we further propose a shrinkage estimator, which automatically adjusts for possible bias. The finite sample performance of our estimator is investigated in a simulation study. Finally, we apply our methodology to part of the Eating at American’s Table Study data, investigating the association between two measures of dietary intake.
    Print ISSN: 0006-3444
    Electronic ISSN: 1464-3510
    Topics: Biology , Mathematics , Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-03-14
    Description: Protein-protein interactions mediated by ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifications occur as mono-Ubl or poly-Ubl chains. Proteins that regulate poly-SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) chain conjugates play important roles in cellular response to DNA damage, such as those caused by cancer radiation therapy. Additionally, high atomic number metals, such as gold, preferentially absorb much more X-ray energy than soft tissues, and thus augment the effect of ionizing radiation when delivered to cells. In this study, we demonstrate that conjugation of a weak SUMO-2/3 ligand to gold nanoparticles facilitated selective multivalent interactions with poly-SUMO-2/3 chains leading to efficient inhibition of poly-SUMO-chain-mediated protein-protein interactions. The ligand-gold particle conjugate significantly sensitized cancer cells to radiation but was not toxic to normal cells. This study demonstrates a viable approach for selective targeting of poly-Ubl chains through multivalent interactions created by nanoparticles that can be chosen based on their properties, such as abilities to augment radiation effects.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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