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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Author(s): J. M. Ni, Q. Y. Liu, Y. J. Yu, E. J. Cheng, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Y. Liu, X. J. Wang, Y. Sui, and S. Y. Li Recently, a novel material with a bilayer kagome lattice Ca 10 Cr 7 O 28 was proposed to be a gapless quantum spin liquid, due to the lack of long-range magnetic order and the observation of broad diffuse excitations. Here, we present the ultralow-temperature thermal conductivity measurements on single c... [Phys. Rev. B 97, 104413] Published Wed Mar 21, 2018
    Keywords: Magnetism
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-04-16
    Description: Cell sheet engineering has been developed as an alternative approach to improve mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration. In this study, we found that vitamin C (Vc) was capable of inducing telomerase activity in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), leading to the up-regulated expression of extracellular matrix type I collagen, fibronectin, and integrin β1, stem cell markers Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog as well as osteogenic markers RUNX2, ALP, OCN. Under Vc treatment, PDLSCs can form cell sheet structures because of increased cell matrix production. Interestingly, PDLSC sheets demonstrated a significant improvement in tissue regeneration compared with untreated control dissociated PDLSCs and offered an effective treatment for periodontal defects in a swine model. In addition, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell sheets were also well constructed using this method. The development of Vc-mediated mesenchymal stem cell sheets may provide an easy and practical approach for cell-based tissue regeneration. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Electronic ISSN: 1097-4652
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Wiley
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-05-09
    Description: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a disease characterized by progressive loss of photoreceptors, exhibits significant genetic heterogeneity. Several genes associated with U4/U6–U5 triple small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (tri-snRNP) complex of the spliceosome have been implicated in autosomal dominant RP (adRP). HPrp4, encoded by PRPF4 , regulates the stability of U4/U6 di-snRNP, which is essential for continuous splicing. Here, we identified two heterozygous variants in PRPF4 , including c.-114_-97del in a simplex RP patient and c.C944T (p.Pro315Leu), which co-segregates with disease phenotype in a family with adRP. Both variants were absent in 400 unrelated controls. The c.-114_-97del, predicted to affect two transcription factor binding sites, was shown to down-regulate the promoter activity of PRPF4 by a luciferase assay, and was associated with a significant reduction of PRPF4 expression in the blood cells of the patient. In fibroblasts from an affected individual with the p.Pro315Leu variant, the expression levels of several tri-snRNP components, including PRPF4 itself, were up-regulated, with altered expression pattern of SC35, a spliceosome marker. The same alterations were also observed in cells over expressing hPrp4 Pro315Leu , suggesting that they arose as a compensatory response to a compromised splicing mechanism caused by hPrp4 dysfunction. Further, over expression of hPrp4 Pro315Leu , but not hPrp4 WT , triggered systemic deformities in wild-type zebrafish embryos with the retina primarily affected, and dramatically augmented death rates in morphant embryos, in which orthologous zebrafish prpf4 gene was silenced. We conclude that mutations of PRPF4 cause RP via haploinsufficiency and dominant-negative effects, and establish PRPF4 as a new U4/U6–U5 snRNP component associated with adRP.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-11-19
    Description: Comparative genomic analyses among closely related species can greatly enhance our understanding of plant gene and genome evolution. We report de novo-assembled AA-genome sequences for Oryza nivara, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza barthii, Oryza glumaepatula, and Oryza meridionalis. Our analyses reveal massive levels of genomic structural variation, including segmental duplication and rapid...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-09-30
    Description: The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM), located in the central part of East Antarctica, have become the subject of great scientific interest because the mechanism driving the uplift of the range, which resembles younger mountain ranges in shape, in the middle of the old Antarctic Plate is unknown. The next step planned in the exploration of the GSM will be focused on direct examination of the ice sheet bed by drilling. The use of cable-suspended drilling technology is proposed. All of the drilling equipment will be installed inside a movable, sledge-mounted, temperature-controlled, and wind-protected drilling shelter and workshop connected by steel pathway. To drill through ice and bedrock, a new version of the cable-suspended ice and bedrock electromechanical drill was designed and tested. During the 2017–18 season, the drilling shelter and workshop will be assembled near the Zhongshan Station and first field tests will be carried out. Drilling for bedrock on the GSM is planned as soon as full financial and logistical support is obtained for the project.
    Print ISSN: 0305-8719
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4927
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-04-20
    Description: Author(s): P. J. Ding, Z. Y. Liu, Y. C. Shi, S. H. Sun, X. L. Liu, X. Sh. Wang, Z. Q. Guo, Q. C. Liu, Y. H. Li, and B. T. Hu A dramatic spectral modulation of third-order harmonic (TH) emission generated in a near-infrared femtosecond (fs) pulse filamentation, assisted by a two-dimensional plasma grating formed by two pump femtosecond pulses, is experimentally demonstrated when their spatiotemporal overlap is achieved. It... [Phys. Rev. A 87, 043828] Published Fri Apr 19, 2013
    Keywords: Quantum optics, physics of lasers, nonlinear optics, classical optics
    Print ISSN: 1050-2947
    Electronic ISSN: 1094-1622
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: In experimental investigations on axial symmetry, over-ventilated CH 4 /air diffusion combustion in a packed bed is executed to study the height, shape and stability of the flame. The combustor is a quartz tube packed with alumina pellets in which a cylindrical fuel stream is surrounded by a coflow air nozzle. The results show that the bed length and pellet diameter have a significant influence on the flame properties. In general, the flame above the pellet surface has axial symmetry, and its shape and colour are similar to those of a conventional diffusion flame when the bed length is smaller. The colour of the flame front varies with the bed length. The changed colour indicates an increased flame front temperature and that the combustion regime above the bed surface may change from non-premixed combustion to partially premixed combustion or even premixed combustion owing to the mix and dispersion effect in the packed bed. In addition, multiple flame behaviours, such as an inclined flame front, isolated reaction zone and oscillatory motion followed by a pulsating sound with a few hertz in a packed bed, are observed experimentally. The possible reasons for these phenomena are discussed.
    Keywords: energy
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-05-09
    Description: Small insertions/deletions (INDELs) of ≤21 bp comprise 18% of all recorded mutations causing human inherited disease and are evident in 24% of documented Mendelian diseases. INDELs affect gene function in multiple ways: for example, by introducing premature stop codons that either lead to the production of truncated proteins or affect transcriptional efficiency. However, the means by which they impact post-transcriptional regulation, including alternative splicing, have not been fully evaluated. In this study, we collate disease-causing INDELs from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and neutral INDELs from the 1000 Genomes Project. The potential of these two types of INDELs to affect binding-site affinity of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) was then evaluated. We identified several sequence features that can distinguish disease-causing INDELs from neutral INDELs. Moreover, we built a machine-learning predictor called PinPor (predicting pathogenic small insertions and deletions affecting post-transcriptional regulation, http://watson.compbio.iupui.edu/pinpor/ ) to ascertain which newly observed INDELs are likely to be pathogenic. Our results show that disease-causing INDELs are more likely to ablate RBP-binding sites and tend to affect more RBP-binding sites than neutral INDELs. Additionally, disease-causing INDELs give rise to greater deviations in binding affinity than neutral INDELs. We also demonstrated that disease-causing INDELs may be distinguished from neutral INDELs by several sequence features, such as their proximity to splice sites and their potential effects on RNA secondary structure. This predictor showed satisfactory performance in identifying numerous pathogenic INDELs, with a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) value of 0.51 and an accuracy of 0.75.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-05-21
    Description: Acquisition of Elizabethkingia infections in intensive care units (ICUs) has risen in the past decade. Treatment of Elizabethkingia infections is challenging due to the lack of effective therapeutic regimens, leading to a high mortality rate. Elizabethkingia infections have long been attributed to Elizabethkingia meningoseptica . Recently, we used whole-genome sequencing to reveal that E. anophelis is the pathogenic agent for an Elizabethkingia outbreak at two ICUs. We performed comparative genomic analysis of seven hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains with five available Elizabethkingia spp. genomes deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database . A pan-genomic approach was applied to identify the core- and pan-genome for the Elizabethkingia genus. We showed that unlike the hospital-isolated pathogen E. meningoseptica ATCC 12535 strain, the hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains have genome content and organization similar to the E. anophelis Ag1 and R26 strains isolated from the midgut microbiota of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae . Both the core- and accessory genomes of Elizabethkingia spp. possess genes conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence. Our study highlights that E. anophelis is an emerging bacterial pathogen for hospital environments.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-04-02
    Description: Nature Physics 10, 294 (2014). doi:10.1038/nphys2898 Authors: Y. Liu, Y. Y. Li, S. Rajput, D. Gilks, L. Lari, P. L. Galindo, M. Weinert, V. K. Lazarov & L. Li Three-dimensional Bi-chalcogenide topological insulators exhibit surface states populated by massless Dirac fermions that are topologically protected from disorder scattering. Here, we demonstrate that these states can be enhanced or destroyed by strain in the vicinity of grain boundaries on the surface of epitaxial Bi2Se3(0001) thin films. Using scanning tunnelling and transmission electron microscopy, we show that the low-angle tilt grain boundaries in Bi2Se3(0001) films consist of arrays of alternating edge dislocation pairs. Along the boundary, these dislocations introduce periodic in-plane compressive and tensile strains. From tunnelling spectroscopy experiments and first-principles calculations, we find that whereas the energy of the Dirac state shifts in regions under tensile strain, a gap opens in regions under compressive strain, indicative of the destruction of the Dirac states at the surface. These results demonstrate that Dirac states can be tuned by strain at the atomic scale.
    Print ISSN: 1745-2473
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-2481
    Topics: Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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