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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-09-28
    Description: Recent studies have reported that thermospheric effects due to solar wind driving can be observed poleward of auroral latitudes. In these papers, the measured neutral mass density perturbations appear as narrow, localized maxima in the cusp and polar cap. They conclude that Joule heating below the spacecraft is the cause of the mass density increases which are sometimes associated with local field-aligned current structures, but not always. In this paper we investigate neutral mass densities measured by accelerometers on the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) spacecraft from launch until years 2010 (CHAMP) and 2012 (GRACE), approximately 10 years of observations from each satellite. We extract local maxima in neutral mass densities over the background using a smoothing window with size of one quarter of the orbit. The maxima have been analyzed for each year, and also for the duration of each set of satellite observations. We show where they occur, under what solar wind conditions, and their relation to magnetic activity. The region with the highest frequency of occurrence coincides approximately with the cusp and mantle, with little direct evidence of an auroral zone source. Our conclusions agree with the “hot polar cap” observations which have been reported and studied in the past.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-11-05
    Description: Overpressure and buoyant effect of underlying sediments are generally used to account for the upward motion or formation of submarine mud volcanoes and mud diapirs. In this study, we process and interpret the gravity anomalies associated with the active mud diapirs off SW Taiwan. Geologically, the mud diapirs are just formed and are still very active, thus we can better understand the initial process of the mud diapirs formation through the gravity analysis. Our results show that the density contrasts of the submarine mud diapirs with respect to the surroundings are generally positive. Because the study area is in a tectonically compressive regime and the gas plume venting from the submarine mud volcanoes is very active, we thus infer that mechanically the mud diapirs off SW Taiwan have been formed mainly due to the tectonic compression on the underlying sediments of high pore-fluid pressure, instead of the buoyancy of the buried sediments. The overpressured sediments and fluid are compressed and pushed upwards to pierce the overlying sediments and form the more compacted mud diapirs. The relatively denser material of the mud diapirs probably constrains the flowing courses of the submarine canyons off SW Taiwan, especially for the upper reaches of the Kaoping and Fangliao submarine canyons.
    Keywords: Marine Geosciences and Applied Geophysics
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Topological semimetals are characterized by symmetry-protected band crossings, which can be preserved in different dimensions in momentum space, forming zero-dimensional nodal points, one-dimensional nodal lines, or even two-dimensional nodal surfaces. Materials harboring nodal points and nodal lines have been experimentally verified, whereas experimental evidence of nodal surfaces is still lacking. Here, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we reveal the coexistence of Dirac nodal surfaces and nodal lines in the bulk electronic structures of ZrSiS. As compared with previous ARPES studies on ZrSiS, we obtained pure bulk states, which enable us to extract unambiguously intrinsic information of the bulk nodal surfaces and nodal lines. Our results show that the nodal lines are the only feature near the Fermi level and constitute the whole Fermi surfaces. We not only prove that the low-energy quasiparticles in ZrSiS are contributed entirely by Dirac fermions but also experimentally realize the nodal surface in topological semimetals.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Complex genetic mechanisms are thought to underlie many human diseases, yet experimental proof of this model has been elusive. Here, we show that a human cardiac anomaly can be caused by a combination of rare, inherited heterozygous mutations. Whole-exome sequencing of a nuclear family revealed that three offspring with childhood-onset cardiomyopathy had inherited three missense single-nucleotide variants in the 〈i〉MKL2〈/i〉, 〈i〉MYH7〈/i〉, and 〈i〉NKX2-5〈/i〉 genes. The 〈i〉MYH7〈/i〉 and 〈i〉MKL2〈/i〉 variants were inherited from the affected, asymptomatic father and the rare 〈i〉NKX2-5〈/i〉 variant (minor allele frequency, 0.0012) from the unaffected mother. We used CRISPR-Cas9 to generate mice encoding the orthologous variants and found that compound heterozygosity for all three variants recapitulated the human disease phenotype. Analysis of murine hearts and human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes provided histologic and molecular evidence for the 〈i〉NKX2-5〈/i〉 variant’s contribution as a genetic modifier.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-11-03
    Description: With accelerating trends in miniaturization of semiconductor devices, techniques for energy harvesting become increasingly important, especially in wearable technologies and sensors for the internet of things. Although thermoelectric systems have many attractive attributes in this context, maintaining large temperature differences across the device terminals and achieving low–thermal impedance interfaces to the surrounding environment become increasingly difficult to achieve as the characteristic dimensions decrease. Here, we propose and demonstrate an architectural solution to this problem, where thin-film active materials integrate into compliant, open three-dimensional (3D) forms. This approach not only enables efficient thermal impedance matching but also multiplies the heat flow through the harvester, thereby increasing the efficiencies for power conversion. Interconnected arrays of 3D thermoelectric coils built using microscale ribbons of monocrystalline silicon as the active material demonstrate these concepts. Quantitative measurements and simulations establish the basic operating principles and the key design features. The results suggest a scalable strategy for deploying hard thermoelectric thin-film materials in harvesters that can integrate effectively with soft materials systems, including those of the human body.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Abstract Traditionally, the magnetotail flow burst outside the diffusion region is known to carry ions and electrons together (Vi = Ve), with the frozen‐in condition well satisfied (E + Ve × B = 0). Such picture, however, may not be true, based on our analyses of the high‐resolution MMS (Magnetospheric Multiscale mission) data. We find that inside the flow burst the electrons and ions can be decoupled (Ve ≠ Vi), with the electron speed 5 times larger than the ion speed. Such super‐Alfvenic electron jet, having scale of 10 di (ion inertial length) in XGSM direction, is associated with electron demagnetization (E + Ve × B ≠ 0), electron agyrotropy (crescent distribution), and O‐line magnetic topology but not associated with the flow reversal and X‐line topology; it can cause strong energy dissipation and electron heating. We quantitatively analyze the dissipation and find that it is primarily attributed to lower hybrid drift waves. These results emphasize the non‐MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) behaviors of magnetotail flow bursts and the role of lower hybrid drift waves in dissipating energies.
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: Author(s): A. Singh, H. Y. Huang, Y. Y. Chin, Y. F. Liao, T. C. Huang, J. Okamoto, W. B. Wu, H. J. Lin, K. D. Tsuei, R. P. Wang, F. M. F. de Groot, C. N. Kuo, H. F. Liu, C. S. Lue, C. T. Chen, D. J. Huang, and A. Chainani We study the electronic structure of the skutterudite Ce 3 Co 4 Sn 13 , which is known to exhibit a charge density wave (CDW) transition, at temperature T C D W ∼ 160 K, coupled to a metal-to-metal transition. We use temperature dependent hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) and x-ray absorption spec... [Phys. Rev. B 98, 235136] Published Tue Dec 18, 2018
    Keywords: Electronic structure and strongly correlated systems
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Description: Heteropoly acids were used as catalysts for cyclodehydration of various 1, n -diols. Cyclodehydration of butane-1,4-diol, pentane-1,5-diol and hexane-1,6-diol catalysed by H 3 PW 12 O 40 gave tetrahydrofuran, tetrahydropyran and oxepane, respectively. Cyclodehydration of diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether and polyethylene glycol 200 catalysed by H 3 PW 12 O 40 gave 1,4-dioxane. In particular, cyclodehydration of hexane-1,6-diol gave an excellent yield of oxepane (80%). The selectivity exhibited by the H 3 PW 12 O 40 catalyst was even better than that exhibited by other reported catalyst systems for similar cyclodehydration reactions.
    Keywords: organic chemistry, synthetic chemistry, green chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-09-12
    Description: Author(s): X. Y. Huang, Y. P. Singh, D. J. Haney, T. Hu, H. Xiao, Hai-Hu Wen, Shuai Zhang, M. Dzero, and C. C. Almasan We studied the temperature and magnetic field dependence of vortex dissipation and critical current in the mixed state of unconventional superconducting alloys Ba ( Fe 1 − x Co x ) 2 As 2 ( 0.044 ≤ x ≤ 0.100 ) through current-voltage measurements. Our results reveal that all the electric field E vs current density j ... [Phys. Rev. B 96, 094509] Published Mon Sep 11, 2017
    Keywords: Superfluidity and superconductivity
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-16
    Description: Motivation: N 6 -methyl-adenosine (m 6 A) is the most prevalent mRNA methylation but precise prediction of its mRNA location is important for understanding its function. A recent sequencing technology, known as Methylated RNA Immunoprecipitation Sequencing technology (MeRIP-seq), has been developed for transcriptome-wide profiling of m 6 A. We previously developed a peak calling algorithm called exomePeak. However, exomePeak over-simplifies data characteristics and ignores the reads’ variances among replicates or reads dependency across a site region. To further improve the performance, new model is needed to address these important issues of MeRIP-seq data. Results: We propose a novel, graphical model-based peak calling method, MeTPeak, for transcriptome-wide detection of m 6 A sites from MeRIP-seq data. MeTPeak explicitly models read count of an m 6 A site and introduces a hierarchical layer of Beta variables to capture the variances and a Hidden Markov model to characterize the reads dependency across a site. In addition, we developed a constrained Newton’s method and designed a log-barrier function to compute analytically intractable, positively constrained Beta parameters. We applied our algorithm to simulated and real biological datasets and demonstrated significant improvement in detection performance and robustness over exomePeak. Prediction results on publicly available MeRIP-seq datasets are also validated and shown to be able to recapitulate the known patterns of m 6 A, further validating the improved performance of MeTPeak. Availability and implementation: The package ‘MeTPeak’ is implemented in R and C ++, and additional details are available at https://github.com/compgenomics/MeTPeak Contact: yufei.huang@utsa.edu or xdchoi@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    Print ISSN: 1367-4803
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2059
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Medicine
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