Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 135: Performance Analysis of Beidou-2/Beidou-3e Combined Solution with Emphasis on Precise Orbit Determination and Precise Point Positioning Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18010135 Authors: Xiaolong Xu Min Li Wenwen Li Jingnan Liu In 2015, the plan for global coverage by the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System was launched. Five global BeiDou experimental satellites (BeiDou-3e) are in orbit for testing. To analyze the performances of precise orbit determination (POD) and precise point positioning (PPP) of onboard BeiDou satellites, about two months of data from 24 tracking stations were used. According to quality analysis of BeiDou-2/BeiDou-3e data, there is no satellite-induced code bias in BeiDou-3e satellites, which has been found in BeiDou-2 satellites. This phenomenon indicates that the quality issues of pseudorange data in BeiDou satellites have been solved well. POD results indicate that the BeiDou-3e orbit precision is comparable to that of BeiDou-2 satellites. The ambiguity fixed solution improved the orbit consistency of inclined geosynchronous orbit satellites in along-track and cross-track directions, but had little effect in the radial direction. Satellite laser ranging of BeiDou-3e medium Earth orbit satellites (MEOs) achieved a standard deviation of about 4 cm. Differences in clock offset series after the removal of reference clock in overlapping arcs were used to assess clock quality, and standard deviation of clock offset could reach 0.18 ns on average, which was in agreement with the orbit precision. For static PPP, when BeiDou-3e satellites were included, the positioning performance for horizontal components was improved slightly. For kinematic PPP, when global positioning satellites (GPS) were combined with BeiDou-2 and BeiDou-3e satellites, the convergence time was 13.5 min with a precision of 2–3 cm for horizontal components, and 3–4 cm for the vertical component.
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