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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-04-01
    Description: Author(s): Z. Y. Zhao, X. M. Wang, C. Fan, W. Tao, X. G. Liu, W. P. Ke, F. B. Zhang, X. Zhao, and X. F. Sun [Phys. Rev. B 89, 099903] Published Mon Mar 31, 2014
    Keywords: Errata
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-04-04
    Description: Heparanase (HPSE) is the endogenous endoglycosidase that degrades heparan sulfate proteoglycans and promotes the tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Our previous studies have shown that HPSE is highly expressed in neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified one binding site of microRNA-558 (miR-558) within the HPSE promoter. In NB tissues and cell lines, miR-558 was up-regulated and positively correlated with HPSE expression. Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that miR-558 facilitated the transcript and protein levels of HPSE and its downstream gene, vascular endothelial growth factor, in NB cell lines. In addition, miR-558 enhanced the promoter activities of HPSE , and these effects were abolished by the mutation of the miR-558-binding site. Mechanistically, miR-558 induced the enrichment of the active epigenetic marker and RNA polymerase II on the HPSE promoter in NB cells in an Argonaute 1-dependent manner, which was abolished by repressing the miR-558-promoter interaction. Knockdown of endogenous miR-558 decreased the growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of NB cells in vitro and in vivo . In contrast, over-expression of miR-558 promoted the growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells. Restoration of HPSE expression prevented the NB cells from changes in these biological features induced by knockdown or over-expression of miR-558. These data indicate that miR-558 induces the transcriptional activation of HPSE via the binding site within promoter, thus facilitating the tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of NB.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-03-14
    Description: Mutual information (MI), a quantity describing the nonlinear dependence between two random variables, has been widely used to construct gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Despite its good performance, MI cannot separate the direct regulations from indirect ones among genes. Although the conditional mutual information (CMI) is able to identify the direct regulations, it generally underestimates the regulation strength, i.e. it may result in false negatives when inferring gene regulations. In this work, to overcome the problems, we propose a novel concept, namely conditional mutual inclusive information (CMI2), to describe the regulations between genes. Furthermore, with CMI2, we develop a new approach, namely CMI2NI (CMI2-based network inference), for reverse-engineering GRNs. In CMI2NI, CMI2 is used to quantify the mutual information between two genes given a third one through calculating the Kullback–Leibler divergence between the postulated distributions of including and excluding the edge between the two genes. The benchmark results on the GRNs from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in Escherichia coli demonstrate the superior performance of CMI2NI. Specifically, even for gene expression data with small sample size, CMI2NI can not only infer the correct topology of the regulation networks but also accurately quantify the regulation strength between genes. As a case study, CMI2NI was also used to reconstruct cancer-specific GRNs using gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). CMI2NI is freely accessible at http://www.comp-sysbio.org/cmi2ni .
    Keywords: Computational Methods, Genomics
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-04-06
    Description: Author(s): Z. Y. Zhao, X. G. Liu, Z. Z. He, X. M. Wang, C. Fan, W. P. Ke, Q. J. Li, L. M. Chen, X. Zhao, and X. F. Sun The very-low-temperature thermal conductivity ( κ ) is studied for BaCo 2 V 2 O 8 , a quasi-one-dimensional Ising-like antiferromagnet exhibiting an unusual magnetic-field-induced order-to-disorder transition. The nearly isotropic transport in the longitudinal field indicates that the magnetic excitations s... [Phys. Rev. B 85, 134412] Published Thu Apr 05, 2012
    Keywords: Magnetism
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-06-10
    Description: Author(s): Z. Y. Zhao, X. Zhao, H. D. Zhou, F. B. Zhang, Q. J. Li, C. Fan, X. F. Sun, and X. G. Li Low-temperature thermal conductivity (κ), as well as magnetization (M) and electric polarization (P), of multiferroic orthoferrite DyFeO3 single crystals are studied with H∥c. When the crystal is cooled in zero field, M, P, and κ all consistently exhibit irreversible magnetic-field dependencies. In ... [Phys. Rev. B 89, 224405] Published Mon Jun 09, 2014
    Keywords: Magnetism
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Development of efficient and robust electrocatalysts is critical for practical fuel cells. We report one-dimensional bunched platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni) alloy nanocages with a Pt-skin structure for the oxygen reduction reaction that display high mass activity (3.52 amperes per milligram platinum) and specific activity (5.16 milliamperes per square centimeter platinum), or nearly 17 and 14 times higher as compared with a commercial platinum on carbon (Pt/C) catalyst. The catalyst exhibits high stability with negligible activity decay after 50,000 cycles. Both the experimental results and theoretical calculations reveal the existence of fewer strongly bonded platinum-oxygen (Pt-O) sites induced by the strain and ligand effects. Moreover, the fuel cell assembled by this catalyst delivers a current density of 1.5 amperes per square centimeter at 0.6 volts and can operate steadily for at least 180 hours.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-01-19
    Description: Author(s): Z. Y. Zhao, X. M. Wang, C. Fan, W. Tao, X. G. Liu, W. P. Ke, F. B. Zhang, X. Zhao, and X. F. Sun The low-temperature thermal conductivity (κ) of GdFeO_{3} single crystals is found to be strongly dependent on magnetic field. The low-field κ(H) curves show two “dips” for H∥a and only one dip for H∥c, with the characteristic fields having good correspondence with the spin-flop and the sp... [Phys. Rev. B 83, 014414] Published Tue Jan 18, 2011
    Keywords: Magnetism
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-11-14
    Description: High quality Zn 1−x Mg x O epilayers have been grown by means of metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique on top of ZnO templates. The grown samples were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence. The magnesium (Mg) concentration was varied between 0% and 3% in order to study the properties of shallow donors. The free and donor bound excitons could be observed simultaneously in our high quality Zn 1−x Mg x O epilayers in the photoluminescence spectra. The results indicate that both built-in strain and Mg-concentration influence the donor exciton binding energy. It clearly shows that the donor exciton binding energy decreases with increasing Mg-concentration and with increasing built-in strain. Furthermore, the results indicate that the donor bound exciton transition energy increases with decreasing strength of the built-in strain if the Mg-concentration is kept the same in the Zn 1−x Mg x O epilayers.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8979
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7550
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-07-23
    Description: The discovery of c . 1.77 Ga A-type granite in the Tarim Craton (TC) provides the first evidence that supports an extensional event related to fragmentation of the Columbia supercontinent in the late Palaeoproterozoic. We present laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U–Pb ages, Lu–Hf isotopic data and the whole-rock geochemical and Nd isotopic data of A-type granites in the Dunhuang area in the SE Tarim Craton. Zircon U–Pb dating for three granite samples indicate that they were emplaced at c . 1.77 Ga. Zircons from these granites have Hf ( t ) values ranging from –5.9 to 8.7, corresponding to two-stage model ages of 1.9–2.7 Ga. These granites exhibit the following petrological geochemical characteristics that are typical of A-type granite: (a) high content of SiO 2 and alkalis (i.e. high K 2 O + Na 2 O with K 2 O/Na 2 O 〉 1), enrichment of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) and rare Earth elements (REE) (except for Eu) and extreme depletion of Ba, Sr, P, Ti and Eu; (b) 10000 x Ga/Al ratios in the Dunhuang granites of 3.5–4.4, with an average value of 3.79 which is similar to the global average of 3.75 for A-type granites; (c) the presence of characteristic minerals such as amphibole, sphene and perthite; and (d) zirconium saturation temperature results indicate that the Dunhuang granites have high initial magmatic temperatures in the range 887–950°C, similar to those of typical of A-type granites. Whole-rock Nd ( t ) values range from –2.5 to –6.2 and T DM model ages from 2.3 to 2.7 Ga. Nd–Hf isotopic and whole-rock geochemical data indicate that these granites were most likely derived from the late Archean crustal source in a post-collisional/post-orogenic extensional tectonic environment. The late Palaeoproterozoic A-type granites in the TC could be correlated with those of the North China Craton (NCC), India and the Canadian Shield, thus demonstrating extensional tectonics and break-up of the Columbia supercontinent.
    Print ISSN: 0016-7568
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-5081
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-09
    Description: This article presented a theoretical analysis of the heat transfer limits associated with a gravitational loop heat pipe (LHP), which involves the utilization of an innovative liquid feeding/distributing and vapour/liquid-separating structure. The mathematical equations governing the heat transport capacity were applied to simulate several commonly known heat transfer limits of the pipe, namely, viscous, sonic, entrainment, capillary, boiling and liquid filling mass limits. This will allow the determination of the actual figure of the limitation and analyses of the factors effecting the limits, including the loop operational temperature, wick type, evaporator diameter/length, evaporator inclination angle, vapour column diameter in the three-way fitting, liquid filling mass and evaporator-to-condenser height difference. During the study, the heat-transfer limits associated with the three-way fitting for liquid feeding/distribution and vapour/liquid separation were given particular attention. The results derived from the analytical model indicated that the compound screen mesh wick can achieve better thermal performance over the sintered powder and open rectangular groove wicks. It was also found that the heat transport capacity of such LHP operation is positively proportional to the operational temperature, evaporator diameter, evaporator inclination angle, vapour column diameter within the three-way fitting, liquid filling mass and evaporator-to-condenser height difference, and in a reciprocal order to the evaporator length. With the specified loop configuration and operational conditions, the LHP can achieve a high heat transport capacity of around 900 W. Overall, the work presented in this article provided an approach to determine the heat transfer limitations for such a specific LHP operation that will be of practical use for the associated system design and performance evaluation.
    Print ISSN: 1748-1317
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-1325
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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