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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-07-26
    Description: Moderate halophilic bacteria are of halophilic bacteria whose suitable growth of NaCl is 5-10%. When the moderate halophilic bacteria response to high osmotic stress, the intracellular will synthesize small organic molecule compatible solutes. Ectoine, which is the major synthetic osmotic compatible solutes for moderate halophilic bacteria, can help microbial enzymes, nucleic acids and the whole cell resist to hypertonic, high temperature, freezing and other inverse environment. In order to increase the Ectoine production of Moderate halophilic bacteria Halomonas sp. H02, the Ectoine fermentation medium component was optimized by Plackett-Burman (PB) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on the principle of non-complete equilibrium The results of PB experiments showed that the three main influencing factors of Moderate halophilic bacteria Halomonas sp. H02 synthesis Ectoine culture medium were C 5 H 8 NNaO 4 concentration, NaCl co...
    Print ISSN: 1755-1307
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-1315
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-10-09
    Description: We constructed a very-high-density, whole-genome marker map (WGMM) for cotton by using 18,597 DNA markers corresponding to 48,958 loci that were aligned to both a consensus genetic map and a reference genome sequence. The WGMM has a density of one locus per 15.6 kb, or an average of 1.3 loci per gene. The WGMM was anchored by the use of colinear markers to a detailed genetic map, providing recombinational information. Mapped markers occurred at relatively greater physical densities in distal chromosomal regions and lower physical densities in the central regions, with all 1 Mb bins having at least nine markers. Hotspots for quantitative trait loci and resistance gene analog clusters were aligned to the map and DNA markers identified for targeting of these regions of high practical importance. Based on the cotton D genome reference sequence, the locations of chromosome structural rearrangements plotted on the map facilitate its translation to other Gossypium genome types. The WGMM is a versatile genetic map for marker assisted breeding, fine mapping and cloning of genes and quantitative trait loci, developing new genetic markers and maps, genome-wide association mapping, and genome evolution studies.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-12
    Description: Pesticide wastewater belongs to typical hardly-degradable ndustrial wastewater. Biochemical system pollutants removal efficiency was in low level because of high salt content and high biological toxicity. Adding biological synergist into biological system to improve the biological system activity, the pilot-scale study results show that: The COD Cr and NH 3 -N removal rate has increased significantly after adding the biological synergist into the biological system. The COD Cr average removal rate of experimental group was 91.2%, and the control group was 84.5%; The experimental group of NH 3 - N removal rate up to 93.2% on average, higher than 51.4% of control group, and the nitrification efficiency was improved significantly. The specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of the synergistic sludge was higher than that of the control group, indicating that the microbial metabolism rate was improved, the sludge structure of the experimental group was...
    Print ISSN: 1755-1307
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-1315
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2008-08-09
    Description: The prevention of autoimmunity requires the elimination of self-reactive T cells during their development and maturation. The expression of diverse self-antigens by stromal cells in the thymus is essential to this process and depends, in part, on the activity of the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene. Here we report the identification of extrathymic Aire-expressing cells (eTACs) resident within the secondary lymphoid organs. These stromally derived eTACs express a diverse array of distinct self-antigens and are capable of interacting with and deleting naive autoreactive T cells. Using two-photon microscopy, we observed stable antigen-specific interactions between eTACs and autoreactive T cells. We propose that such a secondary network of self-antigen-expressing stromal cells may help reinforce immune tolerance by preventing the maturation of autoreactive T cells that escape thymic negative selection.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2532844/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2532844/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gardner, James M -- Devoss, Jason J -- Friedman, Rachel S -- Wong, David J -- Tan, Ying X -- Zhou, Xuyu -- Johannes, Kellsey P -- Su, Maureen A -- Chang, Howard Y -- Krummel, Matthew F -- Anderson, Mark S -- K08 AI076429/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- K08 AI076429-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI035297/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI035297-150009/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI035297-159001/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI035297-160009/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI035297-169001/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI035297-170009/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI035297-179001/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK063720/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK063720-05/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 Aug 8;321(5890):843-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1159407.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA 94122, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18687966" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adoptive Transfer ; Animals ; Antigen Presentation ; Autoantigens/genetics/*immunology ; Autoimmunity ; Cell Proliferation ; Epithelial Cells/immunology ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Glucose-6-Phosphatase/immunology ; Lymph Nodes/cytology/*immunology/metabolism ; Lymphoid Tissue/*cytology/immunology/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Proteins/immunology ; *Self Tolerance ; Spleen/cytology/immunology/metabolism ; Stromal Cells/immunology/metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Thymus Gland/cytology/immunology ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-10-29
    Description: The neocortex contains excitatory neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Clones of neocortical excitatory neurons originating from the same progenitor cell are spatially organized and contribute to the formation of functional microcircuits. In contrast, relatively little is known about the production and organization of neocortical inhibitory interneurons. We found that neocortical inhibitory interneurons were produced as spatially organized clonal units in the developing ventral telencephalon. Furthermore, clonally related interneurons did not randomly disperse but formed spatially isolated clusters in the neocortex. Individual clonal clusters consisting of interneurons expressing the same or distinct neurochemical markers exhibited clear vertical or horizontal organization. These results suggest that the lineage relationship plays a pivotal role in the organization of inhibitory interneurons in the neocortex.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3304494/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3304494/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brown, Keith N -- Chen, She -- Han, Zhi -- Lu, Chun-Hui -- Tan, Xin -- Zhang, Xin-Jun -- Ding, Liya -- Lopez-Cruz, Alejandro -- Saur, Dieter -- Anderson, Stewart A -- Huang, Kun -- Shi, Song-Hai -- K02MH070031/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA024681/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA024681-01A1/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA024681-02/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA024681-03/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA024681-04/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA024681-05/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01DA024681/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01MH066912/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R21 MH083624/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R21 MH083624-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R21 MH083624-02/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R21 NS072483/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R21 NS072483-01/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R21 NS072483-02/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R21MH083624/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R21NS072483/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 28;334(6055):480-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1208884.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Developmental Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22034427" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Lineage ; Cell Movement ; Clone Cells/cytology/physiology ; Gene Knock-In Techniques ; Interneurons/*cytology/*physiology ; Mice ; Mitosis ; Neocortex/*cytology/embryology ; *Neural Inhibition ; Neural Stem Cells/*cytology/physiology ; *Neurogenesis ; Neuroglia/cytology/physiology ; Preoptic Area/cytology/embryology ; Telencephalon/*cytology/embryology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Biodiversity experiments have shown that species loss reduces ecosystem functioning in grassland. To test whether this result can be extrapolated to forests, the main contributors to terrestrial primary productivity, requires large-scale experiments. We manipulated tree species richness by planting more than 150,000 trees in plots with 1 to 16 species. Simulating multiple extinction scenarios, we found that richness strongly increased stand-level productivity. After 8 years, 16-species mixtures had accumulated over twice the amount of carbon found in average monocultures and similar amounts as those of two commercial monocultures. Species richness effects were strongly associated with functional and phylogenetic diversity. A shrub addition treatment reduced tree productivity, but this reduction was smaller at high shrub species richness. Our results encourage multispecies afforestation strategies to restore biodiversity and mitigate climate change.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-09-17
    Description: Inhomogeneity-induced magnetoresistance (IMR) reported in some non-magnetic semiconductors, particularly silicon, has generated considerable interest owing to the large magnitude of the effect and its linear field dependence (albeit at high magnetic fields). Various theories implicate spatial variation of the carrier mobility as being responsible for IMR. Here we show that IMR in lightly doped silicon can be significantly enhanced through hole injection, and then tuned by an applied current to arise at low magnetic fields. In our devices, the 'inhomogeneity' is provided by the p-n boundary formed between regions where conduction is dominated by the minority and majority charge carriers (holes and electrons) respectively; application of a magnetic field distorts the current in the boundary region, resulting in large magnetoresistance. Because this is an intrinsically spatial effect, the geometry of the device can be used to enhance IMR further: we designed an IMR device whose room-temperature field sensitivity at low fields was greatly improved, with magnetoresistance reaching 10% at 0.07 T and 100% at 0.2 T, approaching the performance of commercial giant-magnetoresistance devices. The combination of high sensitivity to low magnetic fields and large high-field response should make this device concept attractive to the magnetic-field sensing industry. Moreover, because our device is based on a conventional silicon platform, it should be possible to integrate it with existing silicon devices and so aid the development of silicon-based magnetoelectronics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wan, Caihua -- Zhang, Xiaozhong -- Gao, Xili -- Wang, Jimin -- Tan, Xinyu -- England -- Nature. 2011 Sep 14;477(7364):304-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10375.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21921912" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-12-22
    Description: Polyploidy often confers emergent properties, such as the higher fibre productivity and quality of tetraploid cottons than diploid cottons bred for the same environments. Here we show that an abrupt five- to sixfold ploidy increase approximately 60 million years (Myr) ago, and allopolyploidy reuniting divergent Gossypium genomes approximately 1-2 Myr ago, conferred about 30-36-fold duplication of ancestral angiosperm (flowering plant) genes in elite cottons (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), genetic complexity equalled only by Brassica among sequenced angiosperms. Nascent fibre evolution, before allopolyploidy, is elucidated by comparison of spinnable-fibred Gossypium herbaceum A and non-spinnable Gossypium longicalyx F genomes to one another and the outgroup D genome of non-spinnable Gossypium raimondii. The sequence of a G. hirsutum A(t)D(t) (in which 't' indicates tetraploid) cultivar reveals many non-reciprocal DNA exchanges between subgenomes that may have contributed to phenotypic innovation and/or other emergent properties such as ecological adaptation by polyploids. Most DNA-level novelty in G. hirsutum recombines alleles from the D-genome progenitor native to its New World habitat and the Old World A-genome progenitor in which spinnable fibre evolved. Coordinated expression changes in proximal groups of functionally distinct genes, including a nuclear mitochondrial DNA block, may account for clusters of cotton-fibre quantitative trait loci affecting diverse traits. Opportunities abound for dissecting emergent properties of other polyploids, particularly angiosperms, by comparison to diploid progenitors and outgroups.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Paterson, Andrew H -- Wendel, Jonathan F -- Gundlach, Heidrun -- Guo, Hui -- Jenkins, Jerry -- Jin, Dianchuan -- Llewellyn, Danny -- Showmaker, Kurtis C -- Shu, Shengqiang -- Udall, Joshua -- Yoo, Mi-jeong -- Byers, Robert -- Chen, Wei -- Doron-Faigenboim, Adi -- Duke, Mary V -- Gong, Lei -- Grimwood, Jane -- Grover, Corrinne -- Grupp, Kara -- Hu, Guanjing -- Lee, Tae-ho -- Li, Jingping -- Lin, Lifeng -- Liu, Tao -- Marler, Barry S -- Page, Justin T -- Roberts, Alison W -- Romanel, Elisson -- Sanders, William S -- Szadkowski, Emmanuel -- Tan, Xu -- Tang, Haibao -- Xu, Chunming -- Wang, Jinpeng -- Wang, Zining -- Zhang, Dong -- Zhang, Lan -- Ashrafi, Hamid -- Bedon, Frank -- Bowers, John E -- Brubaker, Curt L -- Chee, Peng W -- Das, Sayan -- Gingle, Alan R -- Haigler, Candace H -- Harker, David -- Hoffmann, Lucia V -- Hovav, Ran -- Jones, Donald C -- Lemke, Cornelia -- Mansoor, Shahid -- ur Rahman, Mehboob -- Rainville, Lisa N -- Rambani, Aditi -- Reddy, Umesh K -- Rong, Jun-kang -- Saranga, Yehoshua -- Scheffler, Brian E -- Scheffler, Jodi A -- Stelly, David M -- Triplett, Barbara A -- Van Deynze, Allen -- Vaslin, Maite F S -- Waghmare, Vijay N -- Walford, Sally A -- Wright, Robert J -- Zaki, Essam A -- Zhang, Tianzhen -- Dennis, Elizabeth S -- Mayer, Klaus F X -- Peterson, Daniel G -- Rokhsar, Daniel S -- Wang, Xiyin -- Schmutz, Jeremy -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 20;492(7429):423-7. doi: 10.1038/nature11798.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23257886" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; *Biological Evolution ; Cacao/genetics ; Chromosomes, Plant/genetics ; *Cotton Fiber ; Diploidy ; Gene Duplication/genetics ; Genes, Plant/genetics ; Genome, Plant/*genetics ; Gossypium/classification/*genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Phylogeny ; *Polyploidy ; Vitis/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-09-01
    Description: The simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification (SND) performed by Acinetobacter sp. A06 could be inhibited by high salt, high ammonia nitrogen concentrations and extreme pH. To improve the SND nitrogen removal efficiency of Acinetobacter sp. A06 in adverse environment, we investigated the effects on nitrogen removal by Acinetobacter sp. A06 of five compatible solutes. The results show that Ectoine was the best effect in five osmotic compensation solutes when the salt concentration was 15 g/L, 30 g/L, 45 g/L, and 60 g/L, adding Ectoine, nitrogen removal were increased by 21.10%, 26.94%, 14.67% and 11.21%, respectively. When the NH 4 + -N concentration was 1.5 g/L, 2 g/L and 2.5 g/L, adding Ectoine, the nitrogen removal rate increased by 15.93%, 10.07% and 7.11%, respectively,. When the extreme pH of pH was 5 or 9, adding Ectoine, the nitrogen removal rate was increased by 20.70% and 10.44%, respectively.
    Print ISSN: 1755-1307
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-1315
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-05-18
    Description: When using avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in applications, temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown voltage is one of the performance parameters to be considered. Hence, novel materials developed for APDs require dedicated experimental studies. We have carried out such a study on thin Al 1– x Ga x As 0.56 Sb 0.44 p–i–n diode wafers (Ga composition from 0 to 0.15), plus measurements of avalanche gain and dark current. Based on data obtained from 77 to 297 K, the alloys Al 1– x Ga x As 0.56 Sb 0.44 exhibited weak temperature dependence of avalanche gain and breakdown voltage, with temperature coefficient approximately 0.86–1.08 mV K –1 , among the lowest values reported for a number of semiconductor materials. Considering no significant tunnelling current was observed at room temperature at typical operating conditions, the alloys Al 1– x Ga x As 0.56 Sb 0.44 (Ga from 0 to 0.15) are suitable for InP substrates-based APDs that require excellent temperature stability without high tunnelling current.
    Keywords: optics, solid-state physics, electrical engineering
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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