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  • 1
    ISSN: 0301-0104
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Keywords: Nuclear reactions
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0368-2048
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Keywords: Nuclear Reactions
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Picea abies ; Seasonal variation ; Correlations ; Elemental concentrations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The concentration of 20 elements (including eight nutritional elements) in spruce needles was monitored by taking samples at nine different dates in a single year. On each date the youngest and the 1-year-old needles were collected at four different sites. The needles were washed with an organic solvent to remove surface contamination before analysis by instrumental neutron activation. Although the sites showed widely different concentrations for the same element, they could be treated as a uniform population using normalized concentration values. Taking the time dependence of the concentration and the ratio of the concentrations in new and old needles as criteria, the following three groups of elements could be distinguished: 9 group I —Ca, Sr, Ba, and Mn; group II — Al, Br, Co, Fe, Hg, La, Sc, Sb, and Zn; group III — K, Rb, Cs, P, and Cl. Mg and Na did not fit into any of these groups. Within group I and III elements the strongest variations occur during the growing season (late spring and early summer) and the weakest during the dormant season; the variation is greater in the younger needles. Group II elements show an approximately linear increase throughout the year in both the younger and older needles. The concentrations of elements of groups I and II increase with time, while those of group III decrease. Na is unique insofar as its concentration is influenced by foliar uptake of road de-icing salt. The concentration of elements belonging to the same group shows strong inter-element correlations. The grouping of elements deduced here shows similarities with the chemical nature of the elements and with their transportability within the plant.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Picea abies ; Needles ; Twig axis ; Aerosol ; Soil pH
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The concentrations of 23 elements have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the needles and axes of 1-year-old spruce twigs from 12 different sites. Although the twigs had been washed with toluene and tetrahydrofuran prior to analysis, it was found that the amounts of eight elements (Al, Cr, Eu, Fe, La, Sc, Th and V) present were predominantly due to aerosol particles still being retained on the surface of the axes. The results of the remaining 15 elements (Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sr and Zn) were not or only slightly influenced by this effect and are considered to represent their inherent concentrations within the axes. With most of these latter 15 elements there are highly significant and linear correlations between the concentrations in the needles and in the axis, which testify to the great similarity of needles and axis of a twig. The axis/needles ratios are constant for every element (except K), but the individual elements show considerable differentiation, as evidenced by their ratios, which have values between 0.5 and 2.8. Inter-element correlations in the axes are mainly found within two groups of elements. With Na, Cl and Br these correlations are probably due to different pollution levels of the different sites, whereas with Mn, Co, Rb and Cs they are due to the pH of the soil. The activity of 137Cs from the Chernobyl fallout represents independent confirmation of the results obtained with the stable elements. With twigs sprouted before the deposition of the fallout, 137Cs acts as a tracer for aerosol particles, whereas it forms a tracer for the stable Cs inherent to the plant with twigs sprouted after the deposition.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Calcium ; Barium ; Manganese ; Strontium ; Picea abies needles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The concentrations of Ca, Sr, Ba and Mn were determined in up to five successive needle age classes from 54 individual Norway spruce trees [Picea abies (L.) Karst] from nine different sites. The accumulation behaviour was found to be very nonuniform, going from an increase with needle age to a decrease; irregular patterns were also found. The type of accumulation is largely site specific. The increasing behaviour can in most cases be approximated by a simple arithmetic function. All four elements usually show the same accumulation pattern, the similarities being closest between Ca and Mn and least between Ca and Ba. It is postulated that the similarity between the four elements is due to their precipitation and storage as oxalates. The similarity between Ca, Sr and Ba is observed at all concentrations, that with Mn only at concentrations larger than 300 μg/g. Mn at small concentrations (〈 50 μg/g) shows a decreasing pattern and no similarity at all with Ca, Sr and Ba, but behaves similar to mobile elements.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Picea abies ; Seasonal variation ; Correlations ; Elemental concentrations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The concentration of 20 elements (including eight nutritional elements) in spruce needles was monitored by taking samples at nine different dates in a single year. On each date the youngest and the 1-year-old needles were collected at four different sites. The needles were washed with an organic solvent to remove surface contamination before analysis by instrumental neutron activation. Although the sites showed widely different concentrations for the same element, they could be treated as a uniform population using normalized concentration values. Taking the time dependence of the concentration and the ratio of the concentrations in new and old needles as criteria, the following three groups of elements could be distinguished: 9 group I —Ca, Sr, Ba, and Mn; group II — Al, Br, Co, Fe, Hg, La, Sc, Sb, and Zn; group III — K, Rb, Cs, P, and Cl. Mg and Na did not fit into any of these groups. Within group I and III elements the strongest variations occur during the growing season (late spring and early summer) and the weakest during the dormant season; the variation is greater in the younger needles. Group II elements show an approximately linear increase throughout the year in both the younger and older needles. The concentrations of elements of groups I and II increase with time, while those of group III decrease. Na is unique insofar as its concentration is influenced by foliar uptake of road de-icing salt. The concentration of elements belonging to the same group shows strong inter-element correlations. The grouping of elements deduced here shows similarities with the chemical nature of the elements and with their transportability within the plant.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    Keywords: Key words Heavy metals ; Picea abies needles ; Biodynamic curves ; Retranslocation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  The concentrations of Fe, Zn and Co were determined in up to five successive needle age classes in 54 individual Norway spruce trees from eight different sites (soil pH 3.1–7.7). Fe concentrations (12–25 µg in needles from the current year) were lower than most published values, due to the removal of surface contamination prior to analysis. Fe showed a significant positive correlation with Al. Successive needle age classes either had constant values or showed an increase for Fe concentrations; individual trees on a given site were rather uniform in their behaviour. Zn concentrations were 19–40 µg/g. On acid sites, they showed a positive correlation with total soil concentrations. The majority of trees showed decreasing Zn concentrations in successive needle age classes, but constant or increasing concentrations were also found; site homogeneity was less than with Fe. Co concentrations differed between trees on a neutral soil (12 ng/g) and on acid soils (41–174 ng/g). They showed a significant positive correlation with Mn needle concentrations. The changes of Co with needle age in most, but not all, trees were similar to those of Zn. The different changes of Fe, Zn and Co with needle age may be due to a different retranslocation. A modest retranslocation of Fe as opposed to a high retranslocation of Zn and Co (in most trees) is consistent with the observed behaviour.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A comparison of two genetic stocks ofCampanularia flexuosa revealed consistent differences with respect to (1) the number of eggs present in the maturefemale reproductive body (gonangium), (2) the level on each upright stem at which the first gonangium forms, and (3) their preference for the formation of reproductive versusvegetative (side-branch) structures. Alterations in food intake established the optimum feeding level for maximal production of structurally normal gonangia and also showed differences between stocks in the effects of reduced food intake on gonangial versus vegetative growth. A staging series for gonangiogenesis was developed from observations of filling of the gonangium with primordial egg cells (PEC), gonangial elongation, funnel maturation and oogenesis. When upright segments bearing immature gonangia are isolated from the stolon the gonangia frequently resorb, transform into vegetative outgrowths, or form structurally abnormal gonangia bearing fewer germ cells than normal. These responses, and the observed accumulation of PEC at sites of presumptive gonangial outgrowth, support a stolonic origin hypothesis for PEC and implicate PEC and oocytes in the initiation, maintenance and maturation of structurally normal gonangia. In addition, continued differentiation of the gonangial structure appears to be necessary for oocyte maturation. Possible mechanisms for somatic and gametic cell recruitment, and the theoretical importance of cellular proliferation, aging, cell-shape changes, cell movement and cellular interactions in normal gonangial differentiation are discussed.
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