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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Epiphyseal chondrocytes ; Freezefracture ; Scanning electron microscopy ; Cell processes ; Membrane particles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary Chondrocytes in epiphyseal cartilage were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using freeze-fracture techniques. Freeze-fracture replicas showed large numbers of fingerlike, 0.11–0.15 μm diameter, projections from the chondrocyte surface, with numerous 95–180 Å diameter intramembranous particles associated with both the cell membrane surface and these projections. With SEM, these cytoplasmic projections were also obvious, but appeared collapsed into clusters of globular-shaped projections on the surface of the chondrocytes. With freeze-fracture techniques, in which shrinkage artifacts were essentially eliminated, the cytoplasmic projections were often seen in intimate contact with the extracapsular matrix. However, with chondrocytes prepared by both SEM and conventional TEM, there was evidence of shrinkage, the cytoplasmic projections having little contact with the extracapsular matrix. These findings show that the cytoplasmic processes are not artifacts of tissue processing and provide morphological evidence in support of the hypothesis that matrix vesicles are of cellular origin.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Matrix vesicles ; 32P-phosphate and45Ca-metabolism ; Epiphyseal cartilage ; Calcification ; Alkaline phosphatase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary Matrix vesicle-enriched fractions were isolated from different zones of epiphyseal cartilage by nonenzymatic methods involving tissue homogenization, differential centrifugation, and isosmotic Percoll gradient fractionation. Uptakes of both32Pi and45Ca were studied concomitantly over periods from 20 min to 24 h. Percoll density gradients separated epiphyseal microsomes into two alkaline phosphatase-rich fractions: a low-density noncalcifiable fraction (P-I), and a higher-density fraction (P-II) which readily mineralized. The P-II fraction was found only in calcifying regions of the growth plate. Based on chemical and physical properties and enzyme activities, both fractions were similar except that P-II contained significantly higher levels of mineral ions than did P-I, and had lower levels of alkaline phosphatase. The mineral appeared to be primarily in a noncrystalline form. Metabolism of32Pi and45Ca by P-II followed a complex kinetic pattern in which accumulation of large amounts of both ions was preceded by an initial limited burst of uptake and a lag-phase of variable duration. During mineral ion loading, the density of the P-II fraction progressively increased as evidenced by co-migration of45Ca,32Pi, and alkaline phosphatase to increasingly higher densities. During the period of early mineral deposition (1–5 h), Ca/P uptake ratios were very low (1.0–1.2) and X-ray diffraction patterns showed a predominantly amorphous pattern. This suggests that the mineral accumulated in matrix vesicles is initially some form of noncrystalline calcium monohydrogenphosphate. L-tetramisole, a potent inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase, inhibited accumulation of both45Ca and32Piin the absence of organic P substrates,32Pi being preferentially inhibited over45Ca. This finding, coupled with recent studies on the behavior of alkaline phosphatase at physiological pH, suggests that the protein is not acting as a phosphohydrolase, but rather as a Pi-binding or transport agent in vesicle-mediated calcification.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Calcification ; Epiphyseal Cartilage ; Bone ; Electrolytes ; Organic matrices
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Un procédé de dissection a été mis au point pour permettre l'analyse zonale du cartilage de l'épiphyse des os de la jambe d'un foetus bovin. Des échantillons de tissu complet et lavé venant des différentes zones ont été analysés pour déterminer leur contenu en électrolyte et en constituants organiques, ainsi que pour leur densité, cendres et humidité. Les résultats ont montré que lorsque la quantité de cendres et la densité augmentaient, l'eau contenu dans le tissu diminuait. Les quantités de cendres dans les zones de cartilage en voie de calcification étaient plus grandes qu'il avait été. Quand elles étaient exprimées comme un pourcentage du poids sec, elles étaient les plus importantes dans le cartilage lavé calcifié que dans le autre zones. Au début de la minéralisation du cartilage, la quantité de Na (m moles/l de tissu frais) diminuait tandis que celles du Ca et du P inorganique augmentaient. Les niveaux de Mg augmentaient pendant que la calcification se poursuivait, mais seulement à une faction du taux du Ca et du P. Les rapports Ca/P inorganique étaient les plus grands dans le cartilage au repos (Cartilage non-différentié hyalin), suggérant un lien initiale entre Ca et les chrondromucoprotéines. Cependant, au début de la calcification, pendant la prolifération du cartilage les rapports Ca/P étaient beaucoup plus petits (ca. 1.50) mais augmentaient graduellement avec l'advancement de la minéralisation. Des changements importants survenaient dans la composition de la phase organique, pendant la calcification endochondrale. Comme il a été déterminé par l'analyse de l'hydroxyproline la quantité de collagéne diminuait progressivement pendant la calcification du cartilage, mais augmentait rapidement pendant la formation d'os. Comme il a été déterminé par l'analyse de l'héxosamine et du sulfute les chrondromucoprotéines étaient aux niveaux les plus éléves pendant la prolifération du cartilage et diminuaient constamment au cours de la calcification. Cependant, bien que la calcification était déja très avancée dans le cartilage hypertrophique, de grandes quantites de mucopolysaccharides étaient encore présentes. Les rapports sulfure/hhéxosamine montraient un léger déclin pendant les premiéres étapes de la calcification, mais augmentaient beaucoup pendant le cours de la minéralisation. Les quantités d'acide sialique étaient plus grandes dans le cartilage de l'épiphyse que dans le cartilage au repos ou dans l'os. Les lipides augmentaient rapidement pendant la calcification du cartilage, mais étaient très réduites dans l'os complètement formé. La signification de ces résultats est discutée.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Eine Seziermethode, die eine Schichten-Analyse der Beinepiphysenplatte von Rinderfeten erlaubt, wurde entwickelt. Proben vor und nach Waschen des Gewebes der verschiedenen Schichten werden untersucht in bezug auf Elektrolyte und organische Bestandteile, als auch in bezug auf Dichte, Aschengehalt und Feuchtigkeit. Die Resultate zeigten eine Zunahme des Aschengehaltes und der Dichte, während der Wassergehalt abnahm. Unerwartet hoch waren die Aschenwerte im in Verkalkung begriffenen Knorpel. Ausgedrückt in Prozent Trockengewicht, ergab gewaschener, verkalkter Knorpel den höchsten Wert aller Zonen. In den Frühstadien der Knorpelmineralisation nahm der Natriumgehalt (m Mol/l Frischgewebe) ab, während Ca und anorganischer P zunahmen. Mit fortschreitender Verkalkung erhöhte sich auch der Magnesium-Spiegel, allerdings nur zu einem Bruchteil des Ausmaßes, in welchem Ca und P zunahmen. Die höchsten Ca/P anorg. Verhältnisse wurden im Ruheknorpel (undifferenzierter hyaliner Knorpel) gefunden, was auf eine initiale Bindung von Ca durch Chondromucoproteine hinweist. Die Ca/P-Verhältnisse proliferierenden Knorpels waren jedoch bei Verkalkungsbeginn viel tiefer (ca. 1.50). Diese nahmen allerdings mit fortschreitender Mineralisierung stetig zu. In der endochondralen Verkalkungsphase fanden markante Veränderungen in der Zusammensetzung des organischen Anteils statt. Basierend auf der Hydroxyprolinanalyse nahm der Collagengehalt in der knorpeligen Verkalkungsperiode fortschreitend ab, während er jedoch bei der Knochenbildung rasch zunahm. Die an Hand von Hexosamin- und Schwefelanalysen bestimmten Chondromucoproteingehalte ergaben Höchstwerte im proliferierenden Knorpel und fielen stetig ab mit zunehmender Verkalkung. Trotz der im hypertrophischen Knorpel schon weit fortgeschrittenen Verkalkung waren immer noch große Mengen an Mucopolysacchariden vorhanden. Die Schwefel/Hexosamin-Verhältnisse zeigten eine minimale Abnahme in den frühen Verkalkungsphasen, nahmen jedoch markant zu bei fortschreitender Mineralisation. Der Sialinsäurespiegel war im Epiphysenknorpel, verglichen mit demjenigen des Ruheknorpels oder Knochens, erhöht. In der knorpeligen Verkalkungsphase nahmen die Lipide rasch zu, während jedoch die Werte des vollständig ausgebildeten Knochens stark vermindert waren. Die Bedeutung dieser Ergebnisse wird besprochen.
    Notes: Abstract A dissection procedure has been devised to permit zonal analysis of the epiphyseal plate of fetal calf leg bones. Samples of whole and washed tissue from the various zones were analyzed for their content of electrolyte and organic constituents, as well as for density, ash and moisture. Results showed that as ash content and density increased, water content decreased. Ash levels in calcifying cartilage zones were unexpectedly high. When expressed as a percentage of dry weight, washed calcified cartilage had the highest content of any zone. In the early stages of the mineralization of cartilage, Na content (mmoles/l of fresh tissue) decreased as Ca and inorganic P increased. Magnesium levels increased as calcification proceeded, but only at a fraction of the rate of Ca and P. Ratios of Ca/inorganic P were highest in resting cartilage (non-differentiated hyaline cartilage), suggesting an initial binding of Ca to chondromucoproteins. However, at the onset of calcification in proliferating cartilage, Ca/P ratios were much lower (ca. 1.50), but gradually increased with advancing mineralization. Marked changes occurred in the composition of the organic phase during endochondral calcification. As determined by hydroxyproline analysis, collagen content progressively decreased during cartilaginous calcification, but increased rapidly during bone formation. As determined by hexosamine and sulfur analysis, chondromucoproteins were at highest levels in proliferating cartilage and decreased steadily as calcification increased. However, although calcification was already well advanced in hypertrophic cartilage, large amounts of mucopolysaccharide still were present. Sulfur/hexosamine ratios showed a slight decline during the early stages of calcification, but increased markedly with further mineralization. Sialic acid levels were elevated in epiphyseal cartilage over those in resting cartilage or bone. Lipids increased rapidly during cartilaginous calcification, but were greatly reduced in fully-formed bone. The significance of these findings is discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Matrix vesicles ; Acidic phospholipids ; Membrane labeling ; Mineralization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary The localization of serine and ethanolamine phospholipids in isolated chick epiphyseal cartilage matrix vesicles was studied by time-course labeling with trinitrobenzenesulfonate (TNBS), a probe nonpermeant to most biological membranes. Significant amounts of all four of the primary amine-containing phospholipids in matrix vesicles reacted readily with TNBS, indicating that the vesicle membranes were unusually permeable to the label. We attribute this to the presence of large amounts of lysophospholipids present in the vesicle membranes. However, none of the lipids reacted with TNBS to completion. Plateau labeling values suggested that as much as 70 to 80% of the phosphatidylserine (PS) and 60 to 80% of the lysophosphatidylserine (LPS) are located inside the vesicles, and that 40 to 50% of the ethanolamine phospholipids are internal. The kinetic evidence further suggested that an additional 10 to 15% of these phospholipids are probably also internal. In the presence of chloroform-methanol, 1:1, which totally disrupts membrane structure, only 55 to 60% of the total PS and LPS reacted with TNBS, whereas all of the ethanolamine phospholipids did. We attribute this effect to the presence of PS-Ca-Pi complexes which inhibit the reaction of these lipids with TNBS under these conditions. Thus our findings add further evidence that binding of Ca by acidic phospholipids within the matrix vesicles may be involved in mineral deposition in epiphyseal cartilage.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: retinoic acid ; chondrocytes ; weight-bearing joints ; proteoglycan synthesis ; proteoglycan depletion ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The effect of retinoic acid (RA) on primary cultures of growth plate chondrocytes obtained from weight-bearing joints was examined. Chondrocytes were isolated from the tibial epiphysis of 6- to 8-week-old broiler-strain chickens and cultured in either serum-containing or serum-free media. RA was administered at low levels either transiently or continuously after the cells had become established in culture. Effects of RA on cellular protein levels, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, synthesis of proteoglycan (PG), matrix calcification, cellular morphology, synthesis of tissue-specific types of collagen, and level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were explored. RA treatment generally increased AP activity, and stimulated mineral deposition, especially if present continuously. RA also caused a shift in cell morphology from spherical/polygonal to spindle-like. This occurred in conjunction with a change in the type of collagen synthesized: type X and II collagens were decreased, while synthesis of type I collagen was increased. There was also a marked increase in the activity of MMP. Contrasting effects of continuous RA treatment on cellular protein levels were seen: they were enhanced in serum-containing media, but decreased in serum-free HL-1 media. Levels of RA as low as 10 nM significantly inhibited PG synthesis and caused depletion in the levels of PG in the medium and cell-matrix layer. Thus, in these appendicular chondrocytes, RA suppressed chondrocytic (PG, cartilage-specific collagens) and enhanced osteoblastic phenotype (cell morphology, type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and mineralization). J. Cell. Biochem. 65:209-230. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Rous sarcoma virus ; chondrocytes ; matrix calcification ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Endochondral bone formation involves the progression of epiphyseal growth plate chondrocytes through a sequence of developmental stages which include proliferation, differentiation, hypertrophy, and matrix calcification. To study this highly coordinated process, we infected growth plate chondrocytes with Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and studied the effects of RSV transformation on cell proliferation, differentiation, matrix synthesis, and mineralization. The RSV-transformed chondrocytes exhibited a distinct bipolar, fibroblast-like morphology, while the mock-infected chondrocytes had a typical polygonal morphology. The RSV-transformed chondrocytes actively synthesized extracellular matrix proteins consisting mainly of type I collagen and fibronectin. RSV-transformed cells produced much less type X collagen than was produced by mock-transformed cells. There also was a significant reduction of proteoglycan levels secreted in both the cell-matrix layer and culture media from RSV-transformed chondrocytes. RSV-transformed chondrocytes expressed two- to- threefold more matrix metalloproteinase, while expressing only one-half to one-third of the alkaline phosphatase activity of mock infected cells. Finally, RSV-transformed chondrocytes failed to calcify the extracellular matrix, while mock-transformed cells deposited high levels of calcium and phosphate into their extracellular matrix. These results collectively indicate that RSV transformation disrupts the preprogrammed differentiation pattern of growth plate chondrocytes and inhibit chondrocyte terminal differentiation and mineralization. They also suggest that the expression of extracellular matrix proteins, type II and type X collagens, and the cartilage proteoglycans are important for chondrocyte terminal differentiation and matrix calcification. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:453-462, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: chondrocytes ; TGF-β1 ; bFGF ; collagen ; fibronectin ; alkaline phosphatase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Expression of several cellular and matrix proteins which increase significantly during the maturation of growth plate cartilage has been shown to be affected by various endocrine and autocrine factors. In the studies reported here, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were administered to primary cultures of avian growth plate chondrocytes at pre- or post-confluent stages to study the interplay that occurs between these factors in modulating chondrocytic phenotype. Added continuously to pre-confluent chondrocytes, TGF-β1 stimulated the cells to produce abundant extracellular matrix and multilayered cell growth; cell morphology was altered to a more spherical configuration. These effects were generally mimicked by bFGF, but cell shape was not affected. Administered together with TGF-β1, bFGF caused additive stimulation of protein synthesis, and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was markedly, but transiently enhanced. During this pre-confluent stage, TGF-β1 also increased fibronectin secretion into the culture medium. Added to post-confluent cells, TGF-β1 alone caused a dosage-dependent suppression of AP activity, but bFGF alone did not. Under these conditions, TGF-β1 and bFGF had little effect on general protein synthesis, but TGF-β1 alone caused large, dosage-dependent increases in synthesis of fibronectin, and to some extent type II and X collagens. Given together with bFGF, TGF-β1 synergistically increased secretion of fibronectin. These findings reveal that regulation of phenotypic expression in maturing growth plate chondrocytes involves complex interactions between growth factors that are determined by timing, level, continuity, and length of exposure.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: chondrocytes ; osteogenic protein-1 ; retinoic acid ; mineralization ; ALP ; proteoglycans ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1), a member of the TGF-β family of proteins, induces endochondral bone formation. Here we studied the effect of OP-1 on the development of primary cultures of avian growth plate (GP) chondrocytes in either serum-free or serum-containing medium, in the absence or presence of retinoic acid (RA). OP-1 was added on day 7 of culture and continued for 7 days, or until the cultures were harvested, typically on day 21. Alone, OP-1 caused ∼2-fold increase in proteoglycan synthesis into both the medium and the cell:matrix layer. Additionally, OP-1 caused a dosage-dependent increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and an increase in protein, when given from days 7-14 and examined on day 14. This stimulation was greater in cells grown in serum-free than in serum-containing media (3-5-fold vs. 2-3-fold increase in ALP; ∼40% vs. ∼20% increase in protein). Such stimulation of ALP activity and proteoglycan (PG) synthesis in cultured GP cells indicates that OP-1 elicits differentiation of chondrocytes. OP-1 minimally affected cell division (DNA content); however, a slight increase was seen when examined early in the culture. Alone, OP-1 increased mineral (Ca and Pi) content of the cultures by ∼2-fold in both types of media. As early as day 14, clusters of mineral encircled many of the OP-1 treated cells. Thus, as in vivo, OP-1 strongly promoted mineral formation by the cultured GP chondrocytes. When present together, OP-1 and RA generally blocked the action of the other. Separately OP-1 and RA each stimulated protein synthesis, ALP activity, and Ca2+ deposition; together they were inhibitory to each. Also, RA blocked the stimulation of PG synthesis induced by OP-1; whereas OP-1 decreased cell division engendered by RA. Thus, this GP chondrocyte culture system is a good model for studying factors that influence differentiation and mineral deposition during bone growth in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 67:498-513, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: retinoic acid ; matrix metalloproteinases ; chondrocytes ; mRNA levels ; growth plate ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a crucial role in tissue remodeling. In growth plate (GP) cartilage, extensive remodeling occurs at the calcification front. To study the potential involvement of MMPs in retinoic acid (RA) regulation of skeletal development, we studied the effect of all-trans-RA on MMPs levels in mineralizing chicken epiphyseal chondrocyte primary cultures. When treated for 4 day periods on days 10 and 17, RA increased levels of an ∼70 kDa gelatinase activity. The N-terminal sequence of the first 20 amino acid residues of the purified enzyme was identical to that deduced from chicken MMP-2 cDNA. Time-course studies indicated that RA elevated MMP-2 activity levels in the cultures within 16 h. This increase was inhibited by cycloheximide and was enhanced by forskolin. The increase in MMP-2 activity induced by RA was accompanied by an increase in MMP-2 mRNA levels and was abolished by treatment with cycloheximide. This upregulation of MMP levels by RA in GP chondrocytes is consistent with its effects on osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cells and opposite its inhibitory effects on fibroblasts and endothelial cells. It may well be related to the breakdown of the extracellular matrix in the GP and would be governed by the availability of RA at the calcification front where extensive vascularization also occurs. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:90-99, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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