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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: development ; disease ; endosperm ; kinase ; maize ; receptor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We describe the isolation and characterization of maize cDNAs that are transcribed from a small gene family and encode a novel group of receptor-like kinases (RLKs). The distinctive extracellular domain of these novel RLKs includes a unique number and arrangement of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a proline-rich region (PRR), a putative protein degradation target sequence (PEST), and a serine-rich region (SRR). The intracellular domain contains a putative serine/threonine protein kinase. To distinguish them from other reported RLKs, these novel RLKs were termed leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinases (LTKs). Based on analysis of available deduced protein sequences, LTK1 and LTK2 were predicted to be 92.1% identical, while LTK2 and LTK3 were predicted to be 97.5% identical. Though the three LTK proteins showed high homology, the region that most distinguished LTK1 from LTK2 and LTK3 was found in the extracellular domain, in the SRR. To differentiate between expression of the individual ltk genes, we used the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in combination with restriction enzyme analysis. While ltk1 transcripts were constantly present in all tissues tested, ltk2 and ltk3 transcripts were only detected in the endosperm. Furthermore, transcript levels for both ltk1 and ltk2 showed modulation during endosperm development, peaking at 20 days after pollination. These results suggest that members of the ltk gene family mediate signals associated with seed development and maturation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: carotenoid biosynthesis ; endosperm ; gene ; maize ; phytoene desaturase ; regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To study regulation of the plastid-localized maize carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, a cDNA encoding phytoene desaturase (PDS) was isolated and characterized. The DNA sequence of the maize Pds cDNA was determined and compared with available dicot Pds genes. The deduced PDS protein, estimated at 64.1 kDa (unprocessed), had a dinucleotide binding domain and conserved regions characteristic of other carotene desaturases. Alignment of available PDS sequences from distantly related organisms suggests that Pds has potential as a phylogenetic tool. By use of heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli, maize PDS was shown to catalyze two desaturation steps converting phytoene to ζ-carotene. RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) mapping was used to place Pds on chromosome 1S near viviparous5 (vp5), and RT-PCR (reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) analysis indicated reduced Pds transcript in vp5 mutant relative to normal endosperm. Other phytoene-accumulating mutant endosperms, vp2 and white3 (w3), showed no difference in Pds transcript accumulation as compared with normal endosperm counterparts. RT-PCR analysis of Pds transcript accumulation in developing endosperm showed Pds was constitutively expressed. Therefore, endosperm carotenogenesis is not regulated by increasing the level of Pds transcripts.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: chromatin structure ; DNase I hypersensitivity ; gene expression ; sucrose synthetase ; Zea mays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The local chromatin structure of the Shrunken-1 (Sh) gene of maize was probed by analyzing DNase I hypersensitivity. Sh encodes the gene for sucrose synthetase, a major starch biosynthetic enzyme, which is maximally expressed in the endosperm during seed maturation. In addition to general DNase I sensitivity, specific DNase I hypersensitive sites were identified in endosperm chromatin that mapped near the 5′ end of the Sh gene. The pattern of hypersensitive sites and their relative sensitivity were altered in other non-dormant tissues that produce little or no enzyme. However, some changes in chromatin structure appear to be independent of Sh gene expression and may reflect general alterations associated with plant development. The chromatin structure of several sh mutations, induced by Ds controlling element insertions, was also analyzed. Although the insertions perturbed expression of the gene, there were no notable effects on local chromatin structure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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