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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] To confirm the functional role of HiNF-M, we have introduced a series of specific mutations within the H4 promoter site II, a protein-DNA interaction site established by in vivo genomic footprinting7. Several protein factors interact with site II (ref. 3), including HiNF-M, HiNF-P and HiNF-D, a ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4978
    Keywords: histone H4 ; cell cycle ; interferon regulatory factor ; homeodomain protein ; transcription
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Maximal transcription of a prototypical cell cycle controlled histone H4 gene requires a proliferation-specific in vivo genomic protein/DNA interaction element, Site II. Three sequence-specific transcription factors interact with overlapping recognition motifs within Site II: interferon regulatory factor IRF-2 (HiNF-M), the putative H4 subtype-specific protein H4TF-2 (HiNF-P), and HiNF-D which represents a complex of the homeodomain protein CDP/cut, CDC2, cyclin A and pRB. However, natural sequence variation in the Site II sequences of different human H4 genes abolishes binding of specific trans-acting factors; the functional consequences of these variations have not been investigated. To address the precise contribution of H4 promoter factors to the level of H4 gene transcription, we performed a systematic mutational analysis of Site II transcriptional motifs. These mutants were tested for ability to bind each of the Site II cognate proteins, and subsequently evaluated for ability to confer H4 transcriptional activity using chimeric H4 promoter/CAT fusion constructs in different cell types. We also analyzed the effect of over-expressing IRF-2 on CAT reporter gene expression driven by mutant H4 promoters and assessed H4 transcriptional control in cells nullizygous for IRF-1 and IRF-2. Our results show that the recognition sequence for IRF-2 (HiNF-M) is the dominant component of Site II and modulates H4 gene transcription levels by 3 fold. However, the overlapping recognition sequences for IRF-2 (HiNF-M), H4TF-2 (HiNF-P) and CDP/cut (HiNF-D) together modulate H4 gene transcription levels by at least an order of magnitude. Thus, maximal activation of H4 gene transcription during the cell cycle in vivo requires the integrated activities of multiple transcription factors at Site II. We postulate that the composite organization of Site II supports responsiveness to multiple signalling pathways modulating the activities of H4 gene transcription factors during the cell cycle. Variations in Site II sequences among different H4 genes may accomodate differential regulation of H4 gene expression in cells and tissues with unique phenotypic properties.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: apoptosis ; growth suppression ; retinoic acid receptors ; ovarian cancer ; AHPN ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We have used conformationally restricted retinoids to investigate the role of individual RAR subtypes and RXR in mediating the growth response of ovarian tumor cells to retinoids. Our results show that treatment of all-trans-RA-sensitive CAOV-3 cells with retinoids that bind and activate a single RAR or RXR led to a partial inhibition of growth. Treatment of all-trans-RA- resistant SKOV-3 cells did not alter growth. Maximum inhibition of growth, comparable to that observed following treatment with natural retinoids such as all-trans-RA and 9-cis-RA, was obtained only following treatment with a combination of an RAR-selective compound and an RXR-selective one. These results suggest that activation of both RAR and RXR classes is required in order to obtain maximum inhibition of ovarian tumor cell growth by retinoids. In addition, one compound, AHPN, was found to inhibit both RA-sensitive CAOV-3 and RA-resistant SKOV-3 cells. Further study of the effects of this retinoid showed that AHPN acts through an apoptotic pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that retinoids may serve as effective anti-proliferative agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:378-388, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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