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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 1-8 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Recent guidelines released by the U.S. EPA define a worst-case scenario as a release under stable atmospheric conditions defined as Pasquil-Gifford stability class F. Unfortunately, very few tests at F stability have been available heretofore to provide a basis for models. Recent test data with propane releases by the German research organization TUV provide a set of 60 experiments conducted specifically to define the effects of atmospheric stability class on dispersion. Of these, 25 tests were at F stability. A comparable number were at each other stability class A through E. In addition 23 tests were at wind speeds under 1.5 m/s in stable atmospheres. This paper reports on adjustments made to our models based on these new data by reducing the originally-postulated sensitivity to stability class. In spite of considerable scatter in the TUV data, particularly between two different types of propane analyzers, the model allows us to extract information by averaging over the tests.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 61-65 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable mixture will exist in the column.Here we evaluate the risk posed by such an operation to see if a mitigation measure is justified. We develop a fault tree and estimate the frequency of ignition by all possible ignition sources. By comparing the risk reduction attainable by installing a lightning protection system with that attainable by using an inert blanketing system the lightning protection system is found to be the preferred solution. It provides about the same risk reduction at a lower overall cost.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 213-218 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: On October 31, 1987 a crane lifting a heat exchanger convection section failed and severed a 4″ loading line and a 2″ pressure relief line to an HF alkylation reactor settler drum at a petroleum refinery in Texas City, Texas. Vapors were emitted under pressure for about two hours and the vessel was plugged and drained aproximately 44 hours later. A plume from this accidental release passed through residential areas, damaging some vegetation (brown lawns), and spawning a class action law suit. An extensive analysis was conducted to determine the total inventory loss and to model the blowdown process and the concentrations of HF in the plume. Since the discharge rate was decreasing with time, a peak concentration of HF in the emitted vapors occurred just before the water spray mitigation system became fully operative. Consequently, the mitigation efforts were more effective late in the response when concentrations were already low. The predicted plume concentrations are consistent with observed vegetation damage effects, with concentrations below Emergency Response Planning Guideline Level 3 past 3/4 mile from the source. These results support a policy of sheltering in place during such an event.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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