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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract New Pb-, Sr-, and Nd-isotopic data have been obtained for the rocks of volcanoes overlying a wide range of depths (100–580 km) to the Wadati-Benioff Zone (WBZ) in the New Britain island arc, Papua New Guinea. Well-defined trends consistent with two-component mixing are observed in combined Pb-isotope/trace-element plots. One of the components is believed to represent a slab contribution whose isotopic signature, unlike those noted for several other arcs, appears to be dominated by subducted, altered, oceanic crust rather than by sediment. This conclusion is consistent with the results of a recent Be−B study of New Britain rocks. The influence of the slab component is considered to decrease as depth to the WBZ increases. Higher abundances of high-field-strength elements correlate with increasing depths to the WBZ, and may be indicative of smaller degrees of partial melting of the mantle wedge as WBZ depths increase. Abundances of other incompatible elements appear to reflect a complex interplay between the slab-derived flux and melting process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The major and trace element and Pb–Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of Quaternary mafic lavas from the northern Ryukyu arc provide insights into the nature of the mantle wedge and its tectonic evolution. Beneath the volcanic front in the northern part of the arc, the subducted slab of the Philippine Sea Plate bends sharply and steepens at a depth of ∼80 km. Lavas from the volcanic front have high abundances of large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements relative to the high field strength elements, consistent with the result of fluid enrichment processes related to dehydration of the subducting slab. New Pb isotopic data identify two distinct asthenospheric domains in the mantle wedge beneath the south Kyushu and northern Ryukyu arc, which, in a parallel with data from the Lau Basin, appear to reflect mantle with affinities to Indian and Pacific-type mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). Indian Ocean MORB-type mantle, contaminated with subducted Ryukyu sediments can account for the variation of lavas erupted on south Kyushu, and probably in the middle Okinawa Trough. In contrast, magmas of the northern Ryukyu volcanic front appear to be derived from sources of Pacific MORB-type mantle contaminated with a sedimentary component. Along-arc variation in the northern Ryukyus reflects increasing involvement of a sedimentary component to the south. Compositions of alkalic basalts from the south Kyushu back-arc resemble intraplate-type basalts erupted in NW Kyushu since ∼12 Ma. We propose that the bending of the subducted slab was either caused by or resulted in lateral migration of asthenospheric mantle, yielding Indian Ocean-type characteristics from a mantle upwelling zone beneath NW Kyushu and the East China Sea. This model also accounts for (1) extensional counter-clockwise crustal rotation (∼4–2 Ma), (2) voluminous andesite volcanism (∼2 Ma), and (3) the recent distinctive felsic magmatism in the south Kyushu region.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-07
    Description: Highlights • The youngest known (2 Ma) volcanically-active subduction system. • Exceptionally diverse range of magma compositions coeval and spatially juxtaposed. • Mixing of an upwelling asthenospheric mantle melt and a slab melt. • Modern example of an immature subduction system building its proto forearc. • Modern analog of the environment where SSZ ophiolites lithosphere forms. Abstract The development of ideas leading to a greater understanding of subduction initiation is limited by the scarcity of present-day examples. Furthermore, the few examples identified so far unfortunately provide few insights into the nature of magmatism at the inception of subduction. Here we report new observations from the Matthew and Hunter (M&H) subduction zone, a very young subduction zone located in the South-West Pacific. Tectonics of the area show it is younger than 2 Ma, making the M&H the youngest known volcanically-active subduction system and hence providing unique insights into the earliest stages of subduction initiation. Volcanism in this area comprises an exceptionally diverse range of contemporaneously erupting magma compositions which are spatially juxtaposed. Pb isotopic compositions and abundance of LILE and REE strongly suggest melting of upwelling asthenospheric mantle (Indian MORB) and subducted oceanic crust (Pacific MORB of the South Fiji Basin) and the mixing of these two components. Volcanism occurs much closer to the trench compared to volcanism in more mature subduction zones. We demonstrate that the M&H subduction zone is a modern example of an immature subduction system at the stage of pre-arc, near-trench magmatism. It is not yet building an arc but what we propose to call a Subduction Initiation Terrane (SITER). Today, the proto-forearc of the M&H subduction zone is a collage of these SITERs, coeval back-arc domains and remnants of pre-existing terranes including old Vitiaz Arc crust. The M&H area represents a modern analog of a Supra Subduction Zone setting where potentially a majority of ophiolites have formed their crustal and lithospheric components. Present-day magmatism in the M&H area therefore provides clues to understanding unforeseen distribution of contrasted magmatic rock types in fossil forearcs, whether they are at the front of mature subduction zones or in ophiolites.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Sr-, Nd-isotopic and trace element data are reported for a suite of Marquesan volcanic rocks. These data complement earlier work on the island of Ua Pou and reveal that the marked shifts in source composition between shield-building and post-shield eruptives noted there are common to most islands in the archipelago. In addition, there appears to be a relationship between the magnitude of these shifts and the repose period between shield-building and post-shield activity such that, the longer the period of volcanic inactivity, the larger the isotopic and trace element differences between the two phases of volcanism. This, coupled with the compositional uniformity of the shield-building phase, and its close geochemical similarity to depleted mantle reservoirs, implies a strong lithosperic control on magmatic evolution: models invoking entrainment of asthenospheric material during plume ascent are not readily compatible with the observed time-compositional paths. Comparisons with other oceanic islands reveal two ‘end member’ styles of temporal evolution, herein termed ‘Marquesan’ and ‘Hawaiian’, and attributed to the interaction between the oceanic lithosphere and respectively weak and strong plumes, terms used to denote penetrative capacity and not necessarily size or buoyancy flux. Many other plumes may display characteristics intermediate between these extremes. The state of stress and temperature within the oceanic lithosphere in the region of an ascending diapir is also likely to exert a strong control on the geochemical evolution of OIB suites.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 31 data points
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 39 data points
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 47 data points
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 64 data points
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 30 data points
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 14 data points
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