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  • 1
    Call number: 5/M 95.0219 ; 5/M 92.0622
    In: International geophysics series
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xxiii, 524 S.
    ISBN: 0-12-243780-2
    Series Statement: International geophysics series 51
    detail.hit.classification_display:
    A.3.4.
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: Contributors. - Introduction: William F. Brace. - The Brace Symposium and this Volume. - Bibliography: William F. Brace. - Acknowledgments. - BRITTLE FAILURE OF ROCKS. - 1 Observations of Quasistatic Fault Growth from Acoustic Emissions / D.A. Lockner, J.D. Byerlee, V. Kuksenko, A. Ponomarev, A. Sidorin. - 2 Fabrics of Experimental Fault Zones: Their Development and Relationship to Mechanical Behavior / J.M. Logan, C.A. Dengo, N.G. Higgs, Z.Z. Wang. - 3 Frictional Strength and the Effective Pressure Law of Montmorillonite and lllite Clays / C. Morrow, B. Radney, J. Byerlee. - 4 The Brittle-Ductile Transition in Feldspar Aggregates: An Experimental Study / J. Tullis, R. Yund. - 5 Stabilization of Faulting by Cumulative Slip / Teng-fong Wong, Yaojun Gu, Takashi Yanagidani, Yusheng Zhao. - PERMEABILITY AND FLUID FLOW IN ROCKS. - 6 On the Measurement of Permeability in Anisotropic Rocks / Yves Bernabé. - 7 Permeability and Relative Permeability in Rocks / Stephen C. Blair, James G. Berryman. - 8 The Determination of Permeability and Storage Capacity: Pore Pressure Oscillation Method / G.J. Fischer. - 9 Measurement of Permeability and Storage Capacity in Rocks During Deformation at High Temperature and Pressure / G.J. Fischer, M.S. Paterson. - 10 Growth of Grain Contacts in Halite by Solution-transfer: Implications for Diagenesis, Lithification, and Strength Recovery / Stephen H. Hickman, Brian Evans. - 11 The Influence of H2O and CO2 on Melt Migration in Two Silicate Liquid-Olivine Systems / G.N. Riley Jr., D.L. Kohlstedt. - FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK. - 12 Fluid-driven Cyclic Propagation of a Joint in the Ithaca Siltstone, Appalachian Basin, New York / Alfred Lacazette, Terry Engelder. - 13 The Influence of Hydrostatic and Uniaxial Stress on Remanent Magnetization / Randolph J. Martin. - 14 The Correlation between Fracture-toughness Anisotropy and Crack-surface Morphology of Siltstones in the Ithaca Formation, Appalachian Basin / Paul A. Scott, Terry Engelder, John J. Mecholsky Jr. - 15 CT Imaging of Electrical Resistivity Measurements: Nonuniform Water Saturation Can Be a Problem / Eve S. Sprunt. - 16 Fracture Detection and Characterization from Hydrophone Vertical Seismic Profiling Data / M.N. Toksöz, C.H. Cheng, R.D. Cicerone. - IMPLICATIONS OF ROCK MECHANICS ON CRUSTAL TECTONICS. - 17 Role of Elastic Stiffness and Fault Damping during Thrust-sheet Emplacement in a Foreland Belt / E.G. Bombolakis. - 18 Brace-Goetze Strength Profiles, The Partitioning of Strike-slip and Thrust Faulting at Zones of Oblique Convergence, and the Stress-Heat Flow Paradox of the San Andreas Fault / Peter Molnar. - 19 Hydraulic Pulses in the Earth's Crust / Amos Nor, Joseph Walder. - 20 Fault Stress States, Pore Pressure Distributions, and the Weakness of the San Andreas Fault / James R. Rice. - 21 Paradigms or Small Change in Earthquake Mechanics / C.H. Scholz. - Index.
    Location: Reading room
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer
    Call number: 11/M 05.0235
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: X, 347 S.
    Edition: 2nd, completely revised and updated ed.
    ISBN: 3540240233
    detail.hit.classification_display:
    A.3.5.
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Fault gouge ; Riedel shear ; nonlinear dynamics ; rock friction ; orientation of stress ; shear localization ; stick-slip instability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Frictional sliding experiments were conducted on two types of simulated quartz gouge (with median particle diameters 5 μm and 25 μm, respectively) at confining pressures ranging from 50 MPa to 190 MPa in a conventional triaxial configuration. To investigate the operative micromechanical processes, deformation texture developed in the gouge layer was studied in samples which had accumulated different amounts of frictional slip and undergone different stability modes of sliding. The spatial patterning of shear localization was characterized by a quantitative measurement of the shear band density and orientation. Shear localization in the ultrafine quartz gouge initiated very early before the onset of frictional sliding. Various modes of shear localization were evident, but within the gouge zoneR 1-shears were predominant. The density of shear localization increased with cumulative slip, whereas the angle subtended at the rock-gouge interface decreased. Destabilization of the sliding behavior in the ultrafine quartz gouge corresponded to the extension ofR 1-shears and formation of boundaryY-shear segments, whereas stabilization with cumulative slip was related to the coalescence ofY-shear segments to form a throughgoing boundary shear. In the coarse quartz gouge, the sliding behavior was relatively stable, probably because shear localization was inhibited by distributed comminution. Two different models were formulated to analyze the stress field within the gouge zone, with fundamentally different predictions on the orientations of the principal stresses. If the rock-gouge interface is assumed to be bonded without any displacement discontinuity, then the maximum principal stress in the gouge zone is predicted to subtend an angle greater than 45° at the interface. If no assumption on displacement or strain continuity is made and if the gouge has yielded as a Coulomb material, then the maximum principal stress in the gouge zone is predicted to subtend an angle less than 45°. If the apparent friction coefficient increases with overall slip (i.e., slip-hardening), then the Riedel shear angle progressively decreases with increasing shear strain within the gouge layer, possibly attaining a zero value which corresponds to a boundaryY-shear. Our quantitative data on shear localization orientation are in reasonable agreement with this second model, which implies the coefficient of internal friction to be about 0.75 for the ultrafine quartz gouge and 0.8 for the coarse gouge. The wide range of orientations for Riedel shear localization observed in natural faults suggests that the orientations of principal stresses vary as much as in an experimental gouge zone.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Permeability ; compaction ; fluid pressure generation ; effective pressure ; fault mechanics ; fault hydraulics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Permeability exerts significant control over the development of pore pressure excess in the crust, and it is a physical quantity sensitively dependent on the pore structure and stress state. In many applications, the relation between permeability and effective mean stress is assumed to be exponential and that between permeability and porosity is assumed to be a power law, so that the pressure sensitivity of permeability is characterized by the coefficient γ and the porosity sensitivity by the exponent α. In this study, we investigate experimentally the dependence of permeability on pressure and porosity in five sandstones with porosities ranging from 14% to 35% and we review published experimental data on intact rocks, unconsolidated materials and rock fractures. The laboratory data show that the pressure and porosity sensitivities differ significantly for different compaction mechanisms, but for a given compaction mechanism, the data can often be approximated by the empirical relations. The permeabilities of tight rocks and rock joints show relatively high pressure sensitivity and low porosity sensitivity. A wide range of values for α and γ have been observed in relation to the mechanical compaction of porous rocks, sand and fault gouge, whereas the porosity sensitivity for chemical compaction processes is often observed to be given by α≈3. We show that since the ratio γ/α corresponds to the pore compressibility, the different dependences of permeability on porosity and pressure are related to the pore structure and its compressibility. Guided by the laboratory data, we conduct numerical simulations on the development of pore pressure in crustal tectonic settings according to the models ofWalder andNur (1984) andRice (1992). Laboratory data suggest that the pressure sensitivity of fault gouge is relatively low, and to maintain pore pressure at close to the lithostatic value in the Rice model, a relatively high influx of fluid from below the seismogenic layer is necessary. The fluid may be injected as vertically propagating pressure pulses into the seismogenic system, andRice's (1992) critical condition for the existence of solitary wave is shown to be equivalent to α〉1, which is satisfied by most geologic materials in the laboratory. Laboratory data suggest that the porosity sensitivity is relatively high when the permeability is reduced by a coupled mechanical and chemical compaction process. This implies that in a crustal layer, pore pressure may be generated more efficiently than cases studied byWalder andNur (1984) who assumed a relatively low porosity sensitivity of α=2.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 350 (1991), S. 17-18 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] BRITTLE fracture can be slowed down so greatly, report Lockner et al. on page 39 of this issue1, that rather than taking a mere fraction of a second, the process can be drawn out over hours. This enabled the authors to study the way faults nucleate and grow in stressed granite, making the ...
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1745-6584
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
    Notes: Field measurements were conducted to characterize the influences of salt water and tidal loading on submarine ground water discharge (SGD) into West Neck Bay on Shelter Island, New York. SGD was continuously recorded at three sites using an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter, and the spatial extents of the terrestrially derived SGD and the salt water/fresh water mixing zone were inferred from electrical conductivity profiling. While SGD increases with increasing hydraulic gradient in the far field of the coastal aquifer, shorter temporal variations of SGD were inversely correlated with tidal stage. SGD and hydraulic heads in the onshore unconfined aquifer near the coast responded asymmetrically to tidal loading, with discharge and head increasing faster than decreasing. A time lag of ∼1 h was observed between the tidal load and responses in onshore head and SGD. This lag represents a manifestation of the travel time required for tidal influences to propagate landward before the hydraulic gradient adjusts and influences seepage. The spatial extent of the fresh water component of SGD determined by electrical conductivity profiles, seepage velocity, and the time lag between tide and SGD amplitudes are in reasonable agreement with analytic estimates.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1745-6584
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
    Notes: Submarine ground water discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a ground water seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flowmeter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve ground water discharges on the order of 0.1 μm/sec, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York, elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine ground water discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2002-01-01
    Description: To investigate the influence of stress on permeability anisotropy during mechanical compaction, a series of triaxial compression experiments with a new loading configuration called hybrid compression were conducted on three porous sandstones. The effective mean and differential stresses in hybrid compression tests were identical to those in conventional triaxial extension tests. Permeability was measured along the axial direction in both hybrid compression and conventional extension tests, which corresponds to flow along the maximum principal stress direction in the former case and the minimum principal stress direction in the latter case. Since their loading paths coincide, the comparison of permeability values from the two types of tests provides quantitative estimates of the development of permeability anisotropy as a function of effective mean and differential stresses. Our data show that the permeability evolution is primarily controlled by stress. Before the onset of shear-enhanced compaction C*, permeability and porosity reduction are solely controlled by the effective mean stress, with negligible stress-induced anisotropy. With the onset of shear-enhanced compaction and initiation of cataclastic flow, the deviatoric stress induces enhanced permeability and porosity reduction. The permeability tensor may show significant anisotropy. Our data indicate that the maximum principal component of permeability tensor k1 is parallel to the maximum principal stress {sigma}1, and the minimum principal component k3 is parallel to the minimum principal stress {sigma}3. During the initiation and development of shear-enhanced compaction, k1 can exceed k3 by as much as two orders of magnitude. With the progressive development of cataclastic flow, changes of permeability and porosity become gradual again, and the stress-induced permeability anisotropy diminishes as k1 and k3 gradually converge. Our data imply that permeability can be highly anisotropic in tectonic settings undergoing cataclastic flow, inducing the fluid to flow preferentially along conduits subparallel to the maximum compression direction. However, this development of permeability anisotropy is transient in nature, becoming negligible with an accumulation of strain of about 10%. The anisotropic development of permeability in a lithified rock is dominantly controlled by microcracking and pore collapse. This is fundamentally different from the mechanisms active in unconsolidated materials such as sediments and fault gouges, in which the permeability evolution is primarily controlled by the development of fabric and shear localization via the accumulation of shear strain.
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