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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer
    Call number: 11/M 05.0235
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: X, 347 S.
    Edition: 2nd, completely revised and updated ed.
    ISBN: 3540240233
    Classification: A.3.5.
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: 5/M 95.0219 ; 5/M 92.0622
    In: International geophysics series
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xxiii, 524 S.
    ISBN: 0-12-243780-2
    Series Statement: International geophysics series 51
    Classification: A.3.4.
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: Contributors. - Introduction: William F. Brace. - The Brace Symposium and this Volume. - Bibliography: William F. Brace. - Acknowledgments. - BRITTLE FAILURE OF ROCKS. - 1 Observations of Quasistatic Fault Growth from Acoustic Emissions / D.A. Lockner, J.D. Byerlee, V. Kuksenko, A. Ponomarev, A. Sidorin. - 2 Fabrics of Experimental Fault Zones: Their Development and Relationship to Mechanical Behavior / J.M. Logan, C.A. Dengo, N.G. Higgs, Z.Z. Wang. - 3 Frictional Strength and the Effective Pressure Law of Montmorillonite and lllite Clays / C. Morrow, B. Radney, J. Byerlee. - 4 The Brittle-Ductile Transition in Feldspar Aggregates: An Experimental Study / J. Tullis, R. Yund. - 5 Stabilization of Faulting by Cumulative Slip / Teng-fong Wong, Yaojun Gu, Takashi Yanagidani, Yusheng Zhao. - PERMEABILITY AND FLUID FLOW IN ROCKS. - 6 On the Measurement of Permeability in Anisotropic Rocks / Yves Bernabé. - 7 Permeability and Relative Permeability in Rocks / Stephen C. Blair, James G. Berryman. - 8 The Determination of Permeability and Storage Capacity: Pore Pressure Oscillation Method / G.J. Fischer. - 9 Measurement of Permeability and Storage Capacity in Rocks During Deformation at High Temperature and Pressure / G.J. Fischer, M.S. Paterson. - 10 Growth of Grain Contacts in Halite by Solution-transfer: Implications for Diagenesis, Lithification, and Strength Recovery / Stephen H. Hickman, Brian Evans. - 11 The Influence of H2O and CO2 on Melt Migration in Two Silicate Liquid-Olivine Systems / G.N. Riley Jr., D.L. Kohlstedt. - FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK. - 12 Fluid-driven Cyclic Propagation of a Joint in the Ithaca Siltstone, Appalachian Basin, New York / Alfred Lacazette, Terry Engelder. - 13 The Influence of Hydrostatic and Uniaxial Stress on Remanent Magnetization / Randolph J. Martin. - 14 The Correlation between Fracture-toughness Anisotropy and Crack-surface Morphology of Siltstones in the Ithaca Formation, Appalachian Basin / Paul A. Scott, Terry Engelder, John J. Mecholsky Jr. - 15 CT Imaging of Electrical Resistivity Measurements: Nonuniform Water Saturation Can Be a Problem / Eve S. Sprunt. - 16 Fracture Detection and Characterization from Hydrophone Vertical Seismic Profiling Data / M.N. Toksöz, C.H. Cheng, R.D. Cicerone. - IMPLICATIONS OF ROCK MECHANICS ON CRUSTAL TECTONICS. - 17 Role of Elastic Stiffness and Fault Damping during Thrust-sheet Emplacement in a Foreland Belt / E.G. Bombolakis. - 18 Brace-Goetze Strength Profiles, The Partitioning of Strike-slip and Thrust Faulting at Zones of Oblique Convergence, and the Stress-Heat Flow Paradox of the San Andreas Fault / Peter Molnar. - 19 Hydraulic Pulses in the Earth's Crust / Amos Nor, Joseph Walder. - 20 Fault Stress States, Pore Pressure Distributions, and the Weakness of the San Andreas Fault / James R. Rice. - 21 Paradigms or Small Change in Earthquake Mechanics / C.H. Scholz. - Index.
    Location: Reading room
    Location: Reading room
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    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
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    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Meng, Fanbao; Baud, Patrick; Ge, Hongkui; Wong, Teng-fong (2019): The Effect of Stress on Limestone Permeability and Effective Stress Behavior of Damaged Samples. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 124(1), 376-399, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JB016526
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: The evolution of permeability and its effective stress behavior is related to inelastic deformation and failure mode. This was systematically investigated in Indiana and Purbeck limestones with porosities of 16% and 14%, respectively. High‐pressure compression tests were conducted at room temperature on water‐saturated samples. At relatively high confinement shear‐enhanced compaction was observed to initiate at a critical stress, accompanied by significant permeability reduction of up to a factor of ~3. Overall, the permeability reduction due to inelastic compaction in our limestones is smaller than that observed in sandstones. At relatively low confinement, dilatant failure was observed, which was accompanied by a decrease and increase of permeability in Indiana and Purbeck limestones, respectively. There seems to be a trend for the correlation between porosity and permeability changes to switch from positive to negative with increasing porosity. The void space of both limestones has significant proportions of macropores and micropores. The effective stress behavior of such a limestone with dual porosity has been documented to be different from the prediction for a microscopically homogeneous assemblage, in that its effective stress coefficients for permeability and pore volume change may attain values significantly 〉1. In contrast, our investigation of damaged samples consistently showed effective stress coefficients for both permeability and pore volume change with values 〈1. This suggests that the behavior in the damaged samples is akin to that of a microscopically homogeneous assemblage, possibly due to pervasive collapse of macropores that would effectively homogenize the initially bimodal pore size distribution.
    Type: Dataset
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/octet-stream, 56.0 kBytes
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Fault gouge ; Riedel shear ; nonlinear dynamics ; rock friction ; orientation of stress ; shear localization ; stick-slip instability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Frictional sliding experiments were conducted on two types of simulated quartz gouge (with median particle diameters 5 μm and 25 μm, respectively) at confining pressures ranging from 50 MPa to 190 MPa in a conventional triaxial configuration. To investigate the operative micromechanical processes, deformation texture developed in the gouge layer was studied in samples which had accumulated different amounts of frictional slip and undergone different stability modes of sliding. The spatial patterning of shear localization was characterized by a quantitative measurement of the shear band density and orientation. Shear localization in the ultrafine quartz gouge initiated very early before the onset of frictional sliding. Various modes of shear localization were evident, but within the gouge zoneR 1-shears were predominant. The density of shear localization increased with cumulative slip, whereas the angle subtended at the rock-gouge interface decreased. Destabilization of the sliding behavior in the ultrafine quartz gouge corresponded to the extension ofR 1-shears and formation of boundaryY-shear segments, whereas stabilization with cumulative slip was related to the coalescence ofY-shear segments to form a throughgoing boundary shear. In the coarse quartz gouge, the sliding behavior was relatively stable, probably because shear localization was inhibited by distributed comminution. Two different models were formulated to analyze the stress field within the gouge zone, with fundamentally different predictions on the orientations of the principal stresses. If the rock-gouge interface is assumed to be bonded without any displacement discontinuity, then the maximum principal stress in the gouge zone is predicted to subtend an angle greater than 45° at the interface. If no assumption on displacement or strain continuity is made and if the gouge has yielded as a Coulomb material, then the maximum principal stress in the gouge zone is predicted to subtend an angle less than 45°. If the apparent friction coefficient increases with overall slip (i.e., slip-hardening), then the Riedel shear angle progressively decreases with increasing shear strain within the gouge layer, possibly attaining a zero value which corresponds to a boundaryY-shear. Our quantitative data on shear localization orientation are in reasonable agreement with this second model, which implies the coefficient of internal friction to be about 0.75 for the ultrafine quartz gouge and 0.8 for the coarse gouge. The wide range of orientations for Riedel shear localization observed in natural faults suggests that the orientations of principal stresses vary as much as in an experimental gouge zone.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Permeability ; compaction ; fluid pressure generation ; effective pressure ; fault mechanics ; fault hydraulics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Permeability exerts significant control over the development of pore pressure excess in the crust, and it is a physical quantity sensitively dependent on the pore structure and stress state. In many applications, the relation between permeability and effective mean stress is assumed to be exponential and that between permeability and porosity is assumed to be a power law, so that the pressure sensitivity of permeability is characterized by the coefficient γ and the porosity sensitivity by the exponent α. In this study, we investigate experimentally the dependence of permeability on pressure and porosity in five sandstones with porosities ranging from 14% to 35% and we review published experimental data on intact rocks, unconsolidated materials and rock fractures. The laboratory data show that the pressure and porosity sensitivities differ significantly for different compaction mechanisms, but for a given compaction mechanism, the data can often be approximated by the empirical relations. The permeabilities of tight rocks and rock joints show relatively high pressure sensitivity and low porosity sensitivity. A wide range of values for α and γ have been observed in relation to the mechanical compaction of porous rocks, sand and fault gouge, whereas the porosity sensitivity for chemical compaction processes is often observed to be given by α≈3. We show that since the ratio γ/α corresponds to the pore compressibility, the different dependences of permeability on porosity and pressure are related to the pore structure and its compressibility. Guided by the laboratory data, we conduct numerical simulations on the development of pore pressure in crustal tectonic settings according to the models ofWalder andNur (1984) andRice (1992). Laboratory data suggest that the pressure sensitivity of fault gouge is relatively low, and to maintain pore pressure at close to the lithostatic value in the Rice model, a relatively high influx of fluid from below the seismogenic layer is necessary. The fluid may be injected as vertically propagating pressure pulses into the seismogenic system, andRice's (1992) critical condition for the existence of solitary wave is shown to be equivalent to α〉1, which is satisfied by most geologic materials in the laboratory. Laboratory data suggest that the porosity sensitivity is relatively high when the permeability is reduced by a coupled mechanical and chemical compaction process. This implies that in a crustal layer, pore pressure may be generated more efficiently than cases studied byWalder andNur (1984) who assumed a relatively low porosity sensitivity of α=2.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 350 (1991), S. 17-18 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] BRITTLE fracture can be slowed down so greatly, report Lockner et al. on page 39 of this issue1, that rather than taking a mere fraction of a second, the process can be drawn out over hours. This enabled the authors to study the way faults nucleate and grow in stressed granite, making the ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1745-6584
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
    Notes: Field measurements were conducted to characterize the influences of salt water and tidal loading on submarine ground water discharge (SGD) into West Neck Bay on Shelter Island, New York. SGD was continuously recorded at three sites using an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter, and the spatial extents of the terrestrially derived SGD and the salt water/fresh water mixing zone were inferred from electrical conductivity profiling. While SGD increases with increasing hydraulic gradient in the far field of the coastal aquifer, shorter temporal variations of SGD were inversely correlated with tidal stage. SGD and hydraulic heads in the onshore unconfined aquifer near the coast responded asymmetrically to tidal loading, with discharge and head increasing faster than decreasing. A time lag of ∼1 h was observed between the tidal load and responses in onshore head and SGD. This lag represents a manifestation of the travel time required for tidal influences to propagate landward before the hydraulic gradient adjusts and influences seepage. The spatial extent of the fresh water component of SGD determined by electrical conductivity profiles, seepage velocity, and the time lag between tide and SGD amplitudes are in reasonable agreement with analytic estimates.
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