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  • 1
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Several studies have shown that body height is positively associated with educational attainment. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms behind this relationship using data on German pre-teen students. We show that (i) taller children are more likely to enroll in 'Gymnasium', the most academic secondary school track, and that (ii) primary school teachers give better recommendations to taller students. This holds even when controlling for academic achievement and parental background. In addition, we present some evidence that height and social skills are positively associated already at age 2-3. Our results imply that controlling for social skills would significantly reduce estimates of the height-school premium. With respect to education policy, our findings suggest that early school tracking might increase disadvantages for students with low social skills.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; height ; educational tracking ; educational attainment ; social skills ; Bildungsniveau ; Bildungsabschluss ; Gesundheit ; Soziale Kompetenz ; Allgemeinbildende Schule ; Schüler ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: In health care systems today, including those of Switzerland and the United States, participants do not necessarily see the big picture of lifetime health costs and quality of life, and in many systems consumers and providers lack the incentives to manage preventative and chronic care to minimize lifetime private and social health costs. Resource allocation problems induced by asymmetric information and misaligned incentives are exacerbated if consumers fail to have the acuity or perspective needed to make choices consistent with their self-interest when faced with complex health care choices with ambiguous future consequences. This paper examines rationality of consumers' health perceptions and choices using as a natural experiment the recent introduction in the United States of a highly subsidized market for prescription drug insurance, and draws lessons from this experiment on the practicality of "Consumer Directed Health Care" as an approach to achieving efficient allocation of health care resources by confronting consumers with the full marginal costs of the services they use.
    Keywords: C25 ; C61 ; C81 ; D12 ; D91 ; H51 ; I10 ; I12 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; prescription drugs ; health insurance ; Medicare Part D
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: The perception of disease risks and risky health behaviors are closely associated. In this paper, we investigate the accuracy of disease risk perceptions among obese individuals. We compare subjective risk perceptions for various diseases elicited in the American Life Panel (ALP) to individual's objective risks of the same diseases. We find that obese individuals significantly underestimate their 5-year risks of diabetes, arthritis or rheumatism, and hypertension, while they systematically overestimate their 5-year risks of a heart attack and a stroke. Obese individuals are thus aware of some but not all obesity-related risks. For given diseases, we document substantial heterogeneities in the accuracy of expectations across individuals.
    Keywords: I10 ; I18 ; D84 ; ddc:330 ; obesity ; health risk ; subjective expectations ; Körpergewicht ; Gesundheitsrisiko ; Wahrnehmung ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Vienna: Institute for Advanced Studies (IHS)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-27
    Description: Recent research in contract theory on the effects of behavioral biases implicitly assumes that they are stable, in the sense of not being affected by the contracts themselves. In this paper, we provide evidence that this is not necessarily the case. We show that in an insurance context, being insured against losses that may be incurred in a real-effort task changes subjects' self-confidence. Our novel experimental design allows us to disentangle selection into insurance from the effects of being insured by randomly assigning coverage after subjects revealed whether they want to be insured or not. We find that uninsured subjects are underconfident while those that obtain insurance have well-calibrated beliefs. Our results suggest that there might be another mechanism through which insurance affects behavior than just moral hazard.
    Keywords: D84 ; D82 ; C91 ; ddc:330 ; overconfidence ; insurance choice ; underplacement
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: There is ample empirical evidence indicating that a substantial fraction of the population exhibits social preferences. Recent work also shows that social preferences influence the effectiveness of incentives in labor relations. Hence when making contracting decisions, employers should take into account that workers are heterogenous with respect to both their productivity and their social preferences. This paper presents causal evidence that they do. In a real-effort experiment, we elicit measures of workers' productivity and trustworthiness and make this information available to potential employers. Our data show that employers pay significant wage premia for both traits. Firms make highest profits with trustworthy workers, in particular with highly productive and trustworthy workers. We also document differences in the strength of gift exchange across worker types. In particular, output and profit levels of trustworthy workers are less dispersed than those of not-trustworthy workers.
    Keywords: C91 ; J41 ; D86 ; ddc:330 ; information ; skills ; laboratory experiments ; gift exchange games ; optimal contracts
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Colchester: University of Essex, Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: In this paper we ask whether interviewers influence the answers to a standard set of survey questions on financial literacy. We study data from Germany's wealth survey, Panel on Household Finances (PHF). We have access to extensive paradata, including interviewer identifiers, background characteristics of interviewers, and measures of interviewer activity through the survey. We find that interviewer effects explain a significant fraction of the variance of the financial literacy score, and inter-interviewer correlations are notably larger for the financial literacy score than for other survey variables. We explore how accounting for interviewer effects can improve estimates of the effects of financial literacy on financial behaviours and outcomes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; financial literacy ; interviewer effects ; measurement error
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Annandale-on-Hudson, NY: Levy Economics Institute of Bard College
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper describes how German households save and how their saving behavior is linked to public policy, notably pension policy. The analysis is based on a synthetic panel of four cross sections of the German Income and Expenditure Survey ("Einkommens- und Verbrauchsstichproben," EVS,1978, 1983, 1988, and 1993). The paper carefully distinguishes between several saving measures and concepts. It separates discretionary savings from mandatory savings and uses two flow measures: first, the sum of purchases of assets minus the sum of sales of assets and, second, the residual of income minus consumption. Our main finding is a hump-shaped age-saving profile with a high overall saving rate. However, savings remain positive in old age, even for most low-income households. How can we explain what may be termed the "German savings puzzle"? Germany has one of the most generous public pension and health insurance systems in the world, yet private savings are high until old age. We provide a complicated answer that combines historical facts with capital market imperfections and a distinction between the role of discretionary and mandatory savings.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: We study the Medicare Part D prescription drug insurance program as a bellwether for designs of private, non-mandatory health insurance markets that control adverse selection and assure adequate access and coverage. The value that Part D or other prescription drug coverage has for an individual crucially depends on her current level and future development of health conditions, prescription drug needs, and life expectancy. We use administrative data on medical claims in Medicare Part D. These data provide us with detailed and reliable information on health conditions, prescription drug use, as well as information on the plan an individual has chosen and out-of-pocket costs. We can also construct the set of plans that were available to an individual when she made her decision, along with all their characteristics, including formularies and co-payment tiers. The data are available for a 20% random sample of the entire Medicare population, so that sample selection is not an issue and rare conditions, which often require expensive treat-ment, can be studied. The focus of this paper is on the ability of consumers to evaluate and opti-mize their choices of plans, an essential ingredient if adequately regulated private health insurance markets are to be successful in allocating health resources efficiently.
    Keywords: I12 ; D81 ; D12 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: Can a major shock in childhood permanently shape trust? We consider a hunger episode in Germany after WWII and construct a measure of hunger exposure from official data on caloric rations set monthly by the occupying forces providing regional and temporal variation. We correlate hunger exposure with measures of trust using data from a nationally representative sample of the German population. We show that individuals exposed to low caloric rations in childhood have significantly lower levels of trust as adults. This finding highlights that early-life experiences can have long-term effects in domains other than health, where such effects are well-documented.
    Keywords: D01 ; D74 ; J10 ; J62 ; N44 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; trust ; endogenous preferences ; hunger ; war
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: enzyme catalysis ; nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide ; reaction mechanisms ; urocanase ; urocanic acid ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Using a convergent synthetic strategy starting from nicotinic acid and imidazole, we have prepared the (E) and (Z) isomers of 1-benzyl-3-carbamoyl-5-[2-(ethoxycarbonylmethylene)-2-(1-(p-to-lylsulfamoyl)imidazol-4-yl)ethyl]pyridinium bromide (21) as models of the urocanase reaction. Domino reactions of both (E)-21 and (Z)-21 led to the same spirocyclic compound, (3aRS)-11-[9-([D7]benzyl)-5-ethoxy-1-(p-tolylsulfamoyl)-1H,9H-furo[2,3-g]imidazo[5,4-f]isoquinolyl]carboxamide (33), which was isolated and spectroscopically characterised. A possible sequence of reactions leading to 33 shows a number of analogies to the conversions catalysed by the enzyme urocanase. Removal of the p-tolylsulfamoyl protecting group of (E)-21 and (Z)-21 under mild conditions led to the highly reactive model compounds (E)-4 and (Z)-4, which were identified by 1H NMR spectroscopy, but could not be isolated, owing to their instability. To facilitate the monitoring of the reaction cascade by NMR spectroscopy (Z)-21 was prepared in which the benzyl group was fully deuterated. Its deprotection to (Z)-4 started a reaction cascade, which led, after purification, to a main product. According to investigations by UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy it seems very likely that 1-([D7]benzyl)-3-carbamoyl-7-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-imidazo[4,5-f]isoquinolinium bromide (27) was formed. The presumed mechanism of its formation again shows similarities with the postulated mechanism of action of urocanase.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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