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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: The native ˋōhiˋa lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) has cultural, biological and ecological significance to Hawai`i, but it is seriously threatened by a disease commonly referred to as rapid ˋōhiˋa death (ROD). Preliminary investigations showed that a Ceratocystis species similar to C. fimbriata s.lat. was the cause of the disease. In this study, we used a combination of the phylogenetic, morphological and biological species concepts, as well as pathogenicity tests and microsatellite analyses, to characterise isolates collected from diseased ˋōhiˋa trees across Hawai`i Island. Two distinct lineages, representing new species of Ceratocystis, were evident based on multigene phylogenetic analyses. These are described here as C. lukuohia and C. huliohia. Ceratocystis lukuohia forms part of the Latin American clade (LAC) and was most closely associated with isolates from Syngonium and Xanthosoma from the Caribbean and elsewhere, including Hawai`i, and C. platani, which is native to eastern USA. Ceratocystis huliohia resides in the Asian-Australian clade (AAC) and is most closely related to C. uchidae, C. changhui and C. cercfabiensis, which are thought to be native to Asia. Morphology and interfertility tests support the delineation of these two new species and pathogenicity tests show that both species are aggressive pathogens on seedlings of M. polymorpha. Characterisation of isolates using microsatellite markers suggest that both species are clonal and likely represent recently-introduced strains. Intensive research is underway to develop rapid screening protocols for early detection of the pathogens and management strategies in an attempt to prevent the spread of the pathogens to the other islands of Hawai`i, which are currently disease free.
    Keywords: Ceratocystidaceae ; fungal barcoding genes ; invasive species ; ITS types ; new taxa
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 2
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (0031-05850) vol.33 (2014) nr.1 p.155
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Description: Identification of fungi and the International Code of Nomenclature underpinning this process, rests strongly on the characterisation of morphological structures. Yet, the value of these characters to define species in many groups has become questionable or even superfluous. This has emerged as DNA-based techniques have increasingly revealed cryptic species and species complexes. This problem is vividly illustrated in the present study where 105 isolates of the Botryosphaeriales were recovered from both healthy and diseased woody tissues of native Acacia spp. in Namibia and South Africa. Thirteen phylogenetically distinct groups were identified based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA PCR-RFLP and translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1-α) sequence data, two loci that are known to be reliable markers to distinguish species in the Botryosphaeriales. Four of these groups could be linked reliably to sequence data for formerly described species, including Botryosphaeria dothidea, Dothiorella dulcispinae, Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae and Spencermartinsia viticola. Nine groups, however, could not be linked to any other species known from culture and for which sequence data are available. These groups are, therefore, described as Aplosporella africana, A. papillata, Botryosphaeria auasmontanum, Dothiorella capri-amissi, Do. oblonga, Lasiodiplodia pyriformis, Spencermartinsia rosulata, Sphaeropsis variabilis and an undescribed Neofusicoccum sp. The species described here could not be reliably compared with the thousands of taxa described in these genera from other hosts and regions, where only morphological data are available. Such comparison would be possible only if all previously described taxa are epitypified, which is not a viable objective for the two families, Botryosphaeriaceae and Aplosporellaceae, in the Botryosphaeriales identified here. The extent of diversity of the Botryosphaeriales revealed in this and other recent studies is expected to reflect that of other undersampled regions and hosts, and illustrates the urgency to find more effective ways to describe species in this, and indeed other, groups of fungi.
    Keywords: Botryosphaeriales ; morphotaxa ; phylogeny ; taxonomy ; tree health
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Description: Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Corynelia uberata on leaves of Afrocarpus falcatus, Ramichloridium eucleae from Euclea undulata and Stachybotrys aloeticola from Aloe sp. (South Africa), as novel member of the Stachybotriaceae fam. nov. Several species were also described from Zambia, and these include Chaetomella zambiensis on unknown Fabaceae, Schizoparme pseudogranati from Terminalia stuhlmannii, Diaporthe isoberliniae from Isoberlinia angolensis, Peyronellaea combreti from Combretum mossambiciensis, Zasmidium rothmanniae and Phaeococcomyces rothmanniae from Rothmannia engleriana, Diaporthe vangueriae from Vangueria infausta and Diaporthe parapterocarpi from Pterocarpus brenanii. Novel species from the Netherlands include: Stagonospora trichophoricola, Keissleriella trichophoricola and Dinemasporium trichophoricola from Trichophorum cespitosum, Phaeosphaeria poae, Keissleriella poagena, Phaeosphaeria poagena, Parastagonospora poagena and Pyrenochaetopsis poae from Poa sp., Septoriella oudemansii from Phragmites australis and Dendryphion europaeum from Hedera helix (Germany) and Heracleum sphondylium (the Netherlands). Novel species from Australia include: Anungitea eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus leaf litter, Beltraniopsis neolitseae and Acrodontium neolitseae from Neolitsea australiensis, Beltraniella endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Phaeophleospora parsoniae from Parsonia straminea, Penicillifer martinii from Cynodon dactylon, Ochroconis macrozamiae from Macrozamia leaf litter, Triposporium cycadicola, Circinotrichum cycadis, Cladosporium cycadicola and Acrocalymma cycadis from Cycas spp. Furthermore, Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali is described from Dichapetalum rhodesicum (Botswana), Ophiognomonia acadiensis from Picea rubens (Canada), Setophoma vernoniae from Vernonia polyanthes and Penicillium restingae from soil (Brazil), Pseudolachnella guaviyunis from Myrcianthes pungens (Uruguay) and Pseudocercospora neriicola from Nerium oleander (Italy). Novelties from Spain include: Dendryphiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus globulus, Conioscypha minutispora from dead wood, Diplogelasinospora moalensis and Pseudoneurospora canariensis from soil and Inocybe lanatopurpurea from reforested woodland of Pinus spp. Novelties from France include: Kellermania triseptata from Agave angustifolia, Zetiasplozna acaciae from Acacia melanoxylon, Pyrenochaeta pinicola from Pinus sp. and Pseudonectria rusci from Ruscus aculeatus. New species from China include: Dematiocladium celtidicola from Celtis bungeana, Beltrania pseudorhombica, Chaetopsina beijingensis and Toxicocladosporium pini from Pinus spp. and Setophaeosphaeria badalingensis from Hemerocallis fulva. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Alfaria from Cyperus esculentus (Spain), Rinaldiella from a contaminated human lesion (Georgia), Hyalocladosporiella from Tectona grandis (Brazil), Pseudoacremonium from Saccharum spontaneum and Melnikomyces from leaf litter (Vietnam), Annellosympodiella from Juniperus procera (Ethiopia), Neoceratosperma from Eucalyptus leaves (Thailand), Ramopenidiella from Cycas calcicola (Australia), Cephalotrichiella from air in the Netherlands, Neocamarosporium from Mesembryanthemum sp. and Acervuloseptoria from Ziziphus mucronata (South Africa) and Setophaeosphaeria from Hemerocallis fulva (China). Several novel combinations are also introduced, namely for Phaeosphaeria setosa as Setophaeosphaeria setosa, Phoma heteroderae as Peyronellaea heteroderae and Phyllosticta maydis as Peyronellaea maydis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
    Keywords: ITS DNA barcodes ; LSU ; novel fungal genera ; novel fungal species ; systematics
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 4
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (0031-05850) vol.23 (2009) nr.1 p.9
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Description: Ophiostomatoid fungi were isolated from Scolytus ratzeburgi infesting Betula pendula and B. pubescens in Norway. Fungi were identified based on morphology, DNA sequence comparison for two gene regions and phylogenetic analyses. The most abundant fungus was Ophiostoma karelicum, suggesting a specific relationship between the fungus, the vector insect and the host tree. Our results suggest that O. karelicum occurs across the geographic range of S. ratzeburgi and its close relatedness to the Dutch elm disease fungi suggests that it could be important if introduced into other parts of the world. Other fungi, only occasionally isolated from S. ratzeburgi, were identified as O. quercus and a novel taxon, described here as O. denticiliatum sp. nov.
    Keywords: Betula ; Ophiostoma ; Scolytus ; symbiosis
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-13
    Description: Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia, Chaetopsina eucalypti on Eucalyptus leaf litter, Colletotrichum cobbittiense from Cordyline stricta × C. australis hybrid, Cyanodermella banksiae on Banksia ericifolia subsp. macrantha, Discosia macrozamiae on Macrozamia miquelii, Elsinoë banksiigena on Banksia marginata, Elsinoë elaeocarpi on Elaeocarpus sp., Elsinoë leucopogonis on Leucopogon sp., Helminthosporium livistonae on Livistona australis, Idriellomyces eucalypti (incl. Idriellomyces gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus obliqua, Lareunionomyces eucalypti on Eucalyptus sp., Myrotheciomyces corymbiae (incl. Myrotheciomyces gen. nov., Myrotheciomycetaceae fam. nov.), Neolauriomyces eucalypti (incl. Neolauriomyces gen. nov., Neolauriomycetaceae fam. nov.) on Eucalyptus sp., Nullicamyces eucalypti (incl. Nullicamyces gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus leaf litter, Oidiodendron eucalypti on Eucalyptus maidenii, Paracladophialophora cyperacearum (incl. Paracladophialophoraceae fam. nov.) and Periconia cyperacearum on leaves of Cyperaceae, Porodiplodia livistonae (incl. Porodiplodia gen. nov., Porodiplodiaceae fam. nov.) on Livistona australis, Sporidesmium melaleucae (incl. Sporidesmiales ord. nov.) on Melaleuca sp., Teratosphaeria sieberi on Eucalyptus sieberi, Thecaphora australiensis in capsules of a variant of Oxalis exilis. Brazil, Aspergillus serratalhadensis from soil, Diaporthe pseudoinconspicua from Poincianella pyramidalis, Fomitiporella pertenuis on dead wood, Geastrum magnosporum on soil, Marquesius aquaticus (incl. Marquesius gen. nov.) from submerged decaying twig and leaves of unidentified plant, Mastigosporella pigmentata from leaves of Qualea parviflorae, Mucor souzae from soil, Mycocalia aquaphila on decaying wood from tidal detritus, Preussia citrullina as endophyte from leaves of Citrullus lanatus, Queiroziella brasiliensis (incl. Queiroziella gen. nov.) as epiphytic yeast on leaves of Portea leptantha, Quixadomyces cearensis (incl. Quixadomyces gen. nov.) on decaying bark, Xylophallus clavatus on rotten wood. Canada, Didymella cari on Carum carvi and Coriandrum sativum. Chile, Araucasphaeria foliorum (incl. Araucasphaeria gen. nov.) on Araucaria araucana, Aspergillus tumidus from soil, Lomentospora valparaisensis from soil. Colombia, Corynespora pseudocassiicola on Byrsonima sp., Eucalyptostroma eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus pellita, Neometulocladosporiella eucalypti (incl. Neometulocladosporiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla, Tracylla eucalypti (incl. Tracyllaceae fam. nov., Tracyllalales ord. nov.) on Eucalyptus urophylla. Cyprus, Gyromitra anthracobia (incl. Gyromitra subg. Pseudoverpa) on burned soil. Czech Republic, Lecanicillium restrictum from the surface of the wooden barrel, Lecanicillium testudineum from scales of Trachemys scripta elegans. Ecuador, Entoloma yanacolor and Saproamanita quitensis on soil. France, Lentithecium carbonneanum from submerged decorticated Populus branch. Hungary, Pleuromyces hungaricus (incl. Pleuromyces gen. nov.) from a large Fagus sylvatica log. Iran, Zymoseptoria crescenta on Aegilops triuncialis. Malaysia, Ochroconis musicola on Musa sp. Mexico, Cladosporium michoacanense from soil. New Zealand, Acrodontium metrosideri on Metrosideros excelsa, Polynema podocarpi on Podocarpus totara, Pseudoarthrographis phlogis (incl. Pseudoarthrographis gen. nov.) on Phlox subulata. Nigeria, Coprinopsis afrocinerea on soil. Pakistan, Russula mansehraensis on soil under Pinus roxburghii. Russia, Baorangia alexandri on soil in deciduous forests with Quercus mongolica. South Africa, Didymocyrtis brachylaenae on Brachylaena discolor. Spain, Alfaria dactylis from fruit of Phoenix dactylifera, Dothiora infuscans from a blackened wall, Exophiala nidicola from the nest of an unidentified bird, Matsushimaea monilioides from soil, Terfezia morenoi on soil. United Arab Emirates, Tirmania honrubiae on soil. USA, Arxotrichum wyomingense (incl. Arxotrichum gen. nov.) from soil, Hongkongmyces snookiorum from submerged detritus from a fresh water fen, Leratiomyces tesquorum from soil, Talaromyces tabacinus on leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. Vietnam, Afroboletus vietnamensis on soil in an evergreen tropical forest, Colletotrichum condaoense from Ipomoea pes-caprae. Morphological and culture characteristics along with DNA barcodes are provided.
    Keywords: ITS nrDNA barcodes ; LSU ; new taxa ; systematics
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 6
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.40 (2018) p.i
    Publication Date: 2018-05-22
    Keywords: Fungi ; woody plants ; forest pathology
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-06-26
    Description: Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia: Banksiophoma australiensis (incl. Banksiophoma gen. nov.) on Banksia coccinea, Davidiellomyces australiensis (incl. Davidiellomyces gen. nov.) on Cyperaceae, Didymocyrtis banksiae on Banksia sessilis var. cygnorum, Disculoides calophyllae on Corymbia calophylla, Harknessia banksiae on Banksia sessilis, Harknessia banksiae-repens on Banksia repens, Harknessia banksiigena on Banksia sessilis var. cygnorum, Harknessia communis on Podocarpus sp., Harknessia platyphyllae on Eucalyptus platyphylla, Myrtacremonium eucalypti (incl. Myrtacremonium gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtapenidiella balenae on Eucalyptus sp., Myrtapenidiella eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus sp., Myrtapenidiella pleurocarpae on Eucalyptus pleurocarpa, Paraconiothyrium hakeae on Hakea sp., Paraphaeosphaeria xanthorrhoeae on Xanthorrhoea sp., Parateratosphaeria stirlingiae on Stirlingia sp., Perthomyces podocarpi (incl. Perthomyces gen. nov.) on Podocarpus sp., Readeriella ellipsoidea on Eucalyptus sp., Rosellinia australiensis on Banksia grandis, Tiarosporella corymbiae on Corymbia calophylla, Verrucoconiothyrium eucalyptigenum on Eucalyptus sp., Zasmidium commune on Xanthorrhoea sp., and Zasmidium podocarpi on Podocarpus sp. Brazil: Cyathus aurantogriseocarpus on decaying wood, Perenniporia brasiliensis on decayed wood, Perenniporia paraguyanensis on decayed wood, and Pseudocercospora leandrae-fragilis on Leandra fragilis. Chile: Phialocephala cladophialophoroides on human toe nail. Costa Rica: Psathyrella striatoannulata from soil. Czech Republic: Myotisia cremea (incl. Myotisia gen. nov.) on bat droppings. Ecuador: Humidicutis dictiocephala from soil, Hygrocybe macrosiparia from soil, Hygrocybe sangayensis from soil, and Polycephalomyces onorei on stem of Etlingera sp. France: Westerdykella centenaria from soil. Hungary: Tuber magentipunctatum from soil. India: Ganoderma mizoramense on decaying wood, Hodophilus indicus from soil, Keratinophyton turgidum in soil, and Russula arunii on Pterigota alata. Italy: Rhodocybe matesina from soil. Malaysia: Apoharknessia eucalyptorum, Harknessia malayensis, Harknessia pellitae, and Peyronellaea eucalypti on Eucalyptus pellita, Lectera capsici on Capsicum annuum, and Wallrothiella gmelinae on Gmelina arborea. Morocco: Neocordana musigena on Musa sp. New Zealand: Candida rongomai-pounamu on agaric mushroom surface, Candida vespimorsuum on cup fungus surface, Cylindrocladiella vitis on Vitis vinifera, Foliocryphia eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus sp., Ramularia vacciniicola on Vaccinium sp., and Rhodotorula ngohengohe on bird feather surface. Poland: Tolypocladium fumosum on a caterpillar case of unidentified Lepidoptera. Russia: Pholiotina longistipitata among moss. Spain: Coprinopsis pseudomarcescibilis from soil, Eremiomyces innocentii from soil, Gyroporus pseudocyanescens in humus, Inocybe parvicystis in humus, and Penicillium parvofructum from soil. Unknown origin: Paraphoma rhaphiolepidis on Rhaphiolepsis indica. USA: Acidiella americana from wall of a cooling tower, Neodactylaria obpyriformis (incl. Neodactylaria gen. nov.) from human bronchoalveolar lavage, and Saksenaea loutrophoriformis from human eye. Vietnam: Phytophthora mekongensis from Citrus grandis, and Phytophthora prodigiosa from Citrus grandis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with DNA barcodes are provided.
    Keywords: ITS nrDNA barcodes ; LSU ; novel fungal species ; systematics
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
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  • 8
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (0031-05850) vol.24 (2010) nr.1 p.18
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Description: The genus Ophiostoma (Ophiostomatales) has a global distribution and species are best known for their association with bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) on conifers. An unusual assemblage of these fungi is closely associated with the African endemic plant genus Protea (Proteaceae). Protea-associated Ophiostoma species are ecologically atypical as they colonise the fruiting structures of various serotinous Protea species. Seven species have been described from this niche in South Africa. It has been speculated that novel species may be present in other African countries where these host plants also occur. This view was corroborated by recent collections of two unknown species from Protea caffra trees in Zambia. In the present study we evaluate the species delineation of these isolates using morphological comparisons with other Protea-associated species, differential growth studies and analyses of DNA sequence data for the β-tubulin and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) regions. As a result, the species O. protea-sedis sp. nov., and O. zambiensis sp. nov. are described here as new. This study brings the number of Protea-associated Ophiostoma species to nine and highlights the need for more inclusive surveys, including additional African countries and hosts, to elucidate species diversity in this uncharacteristic niche.
    Keywords: β-tubulin ; ITS ; Ophiostoma ; phylogeny ; Protea ; taxonomy
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 9
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (0031-05850) vol.25 (2010) nr.1 p.50
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Description: Australia has efficient and visible plant quarantine measures, which through various border controls and survey activities attempt to prevent the entry of unwanted pests and diseases. The ability to successfully perform this task relies heavily on determining what pathogens are present and established in Australia as well as those pathogens that are exotic and threatening. There are detailed checklists and databases of fungal plant pathogens in Australia, compiled, in part, from surveys over many years sponsored by Federal and State programmes. These checklists and databases are mostly specimen-based, which enables validation of records with reference herbarium specimens and sometimes associated cultures. Most of the identifications have been based on morphological examination. The use of molecular methods, particularly the analysis of DNA sequence data, has recently shown that several well-known and important plant pathogenic species are actually complexes of cryptic species. We provide examples of this in the important plant pathogenic genera Botryosphaeria and its anamorphs, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Phomopsis / Diaporthe and Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs. The discovery of these cryptic species indicates that many of the fungal names in checklists need scrutiny. It is difficult, and often impossible, to extract DNA for sequence analysis from herbarium specimens in order to validate identifications that may now be considered suspect. This validation can only be done if specimens are recollected, re-isolated and subjected to DNA analysis. Where possible, herbarium specimens as well as living cultures are needed to support records. Accurate knowledge of the plant pathogens within Australia’s borders is an essential prerequisite for the effective discharge of plant quarantine activities that will prevent or delay the arrival of unwanted plant pathogens.
    Keywords: Disease associated fungi ; disease threats ; molecular phylogeny ; quarantine ; taxonomy
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
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  • 10
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (0031-05850) vol.21 (2008) nr.1 p.147
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Description: The smut genus Thecaphora contains plant parasitic microfungi that typically infect very specific plant organs. In this study, we describe a new species of Thecaphora from Oxalis lanata var. rosea (Oxalidaceae) in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions based on large subunit ribosomal DNA sequence data confirmed the generic placement of the fungus and confirmed that it represents an undescribed species for which the name T. capensis sp. nov. is provided. The closest known sister species of the new taxon is T. oxalidis that infects the fruits of Oxalis spp. in Europe, Asia and the Americas. In contrast, T. capensis produces teliospores within the anthers of its host. This is the first documented case of an anther-smut from an African species of Oxalis and the first Thecaphora species described from Africa.
    Keywords: anther-smut ; Cape Floristic Region ; Oxalis ; phylogeny ; Thecaphora
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
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