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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The National Airspace System (NAS) faces a significant challenge. With the nation's economy growing stronger, and passengers returning to the skies, the demand for air transportation is steadily rising once again. The capacity of the current airspace system will struggle to keep pace in the near term, and with demand expected to double within a decade, air traffic delays are likely to escalate, soon becoming intolerable for aviation businesses. Recognition in the aviation community is forming that retaining a growing, thriving air transportation system for the benefit of the traveling public and the world economy will likely require implementing transformational ideas in air traffic management. This video illustrates an approach NASA is pursuing to this end: the notion that a major untapped resource available to air traffic management can be leveraged, the aircraft itself. The thesis presented is that implementation of vehicle-centric air traffic management capabilities into the NAS could have a profound, positive, and sustainable impact on system capacity, individual aircraft operators, and the economy through its dependency on air.
    Keywords: Air Transportation and Safety
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A multiaxis thrust vectoring nozzle designed to have equal flow turning capability in pitch and yaw is investigated, and methods for obtaining large multiaxis thrust vector angles without physical vectoring flap interference are studied. These methods include restricting the pitch flaps from the path of the yaw flaps, and shifting the flow path at the throat off the nozzle centerline in order to permit larger pitch flap deflections without interfering with operation of the yaw flaps. The results obtained show that unvectored performance of the cruciform nozzle is only slightly lower (0.5 to 1.0 percent) than that of previously tested axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric nozzles, despite the complex internal geometry. The shifted-throat nozzle design has larger thrust vector angles at the nozzle pressure ratio of peak resultant thrust efficiency, but has 1 to 2 percent lower peak thrust performance than the restricted-flap nozzle design.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-2137
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A multiaxis thrust vectoring nozzle designed to have equal flow turning capability in pitch and yaw was conceived and experimentally tested for internal, static performance. The cruciform-shaped convergent-divergent nozzle turned the flow for thrust vectoring by deflecting the divergent surfaces of the nozzle, called flaps. Methods for eliminating physical interference between pitch and yaw flaps at the larger multiaxis deflection angles was studied. These methods included restricting the pitch flaps from the path of the yaw flaps and shifting the flow path at the throat off the nozzle centerline to permit larger pitch-flap deflections without interfering with the operation of the yaw flaps. Two flap widths were tested at both dry and afterburning settings. Vertical and reverse thrust configurations at dry power were also tested. Comparison with two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles showed lower but still competitive thrust performance and thrust vectoring capability.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-16958 , NAS 1.60:3188 , NASA-TP-3188
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: NASA is currently investigating a new concept of operations for the National Airspace System, designed to improve capacity while maintaining or improving current levels of safety. This concept, known as Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM), allows appropriately equipped autonomous aircraft to maneuver freely for flight optimization while resolving conflicts with other traffic and staying out of special use airspace and hazardous weather. While Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) tools would normally allow pilots to resolve conflicts before they become hazardous, evaluation of system performance in sudden, near-term conflicts is needed in order to determine concept feasibility. If an acceptable safety level can be demonstrated in these situations, then operations may be conducted with lower separation minimums. An experiment was conducted in NASA Langley s Air Traffic Operations Lab to address issues associated with resolving near-term conflicts and the potential use of lower separation minimums. Sixteen commercial airline pilots flew a total of 32 traffic scenarios that required them to use prototype ASAS tools to resolve close range pop-up conflicts. Required separation standards were set at either 3 or 5 NM lateral spacing, with 1000 ft vertical separation being used for both cases. Reducing the lateral separation from 5 to 3 NM did not appear to increase operational risk, as indicated by the proximity to the intruder aircraft. Pilots performed better when they followed tactical guidance cues provided by ASAS than when they didn't follow the guidance. As air-air separation concepts are evolved, further studies will consider integration issues between ASAS and existing Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS).These types of non-normal events will require the ASAS to provide effective alerts and resolutions prior to the time that an Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) would give a Resolution Advisory (RA). When an RA is issued, a pilot must take immediate action in order to avoid a potential near miss. The Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) II currently functions as an ACAS aboard commercial aircraft. Depending on the own aircraft s altitude, TCAS only issues RA s 15-35 seconds prior to the Closest Point of Approach (CPA). Prior to an RA, DAG-TM pilots operating autonomous aircraft must rely solely on ASAS for resolution guidance. An additional area of DAG-TM concept feasibility relates to a potential reduction in separation standards. Lower separation standards are likely needed in order to improve NAS efficiency and capacity. Current separation minimums are based in large part on the capabilities of older radar systems. Safety assessments are needed to determine the feasibility of reduced separation minimums. They will give strong consideration to surveillance system performance, including accuracy, integrity, and availability. Candidate surveillance systems include Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and multi-lateration systems. Considering studies done for Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums (RVSM) operations, it is likely that flight technical errors will also be considered. In addition to a thorough evaluation of surveillance system performance, a potential decision to lower the separation standards should also take operational considerations into account. An ASAS Safety Assessment study identified improper maneuvering in response to a conflict (due to ambiguous or improper resolution commands or a pilot s failure to comply with the resolution) as a potential safety risk. If near-term conflicts with lower separation minimums were determined to be more challenging for pilots, the severity of these risks could be even greater.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The thrust-vectoring axisymmetric (VA) nozzle and a spherical convergent flap (SCF) thrust-vectoring nozzle were tested along with a baseline nonvectoring axisymmetric (NVA) nozzle in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0 to 1.28 and nozzle pressure ratios from 1 to 8. Test parameters included geometric yaw vector angle and unvectored divergent flap length. No pitch vectoring was studied. Nozzle drag, thrust minus drag, yaw thrust vector angle, discharge coefficient, and static thrust performance were measured and analyzed, as well as external static pressure distributions. The NVA nozzle and the VA nozzle displayed higher static thrust performance than the SCF nozzle throughout the nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) range tested. The NVA nozzle had higher overall thrust minus drag than the other nozzles throughout the NPR and Mach number ranges tested. The SCF nozzle had the lowest jet-on nozzle drag of the three nozzles throughout the test conditions. The SCF nozzle provided yaw thrust angles that were equal to the geometric angle and constant with NPR. The VA nozzle achieved yaw thrust vector angles that were significantly higher than the geometric angle but not constant with NPR. Nozzle drag generally increased with increases in thrust vectoring for all the nozzles tested.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: L-17151 , NAS 1.60:3313 , NASA-TP-3313
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2011-10-14
    Description: This test was originally conducted to determine the effects of several empennage and afterbody parameters on the aft-end aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine fighter-type configuration. Model variables were as follows: horizontal tail axial location and incidence, vertical tail axial location and configuration (twin-vs single-tail arrangements), tail booms, and nozzle power setting. Jet propulsion was simulated by exhausting high-pressure, cold-flow air from the nozzles. Following a successful test conducted on a single engine nacelle model to validate a CFD code, this model was chosen to be instrumented with pressure taps on the afterbody and nozzles and used as a follow-on test, providing a more complex geometry for the CFD code validation. A more limited test matrix was run to collect the pressure data, employing only the twin-tail configuration and varying only the horizontal and vertical tail locations. Mach number was varied from 0.6 to 1.2. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet-off to 8. Angle-of-attack varied from 0 to 8 deg.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AGARD, A Selection of Experimental Test Cases for the Validation of CFD Codes, Volume 2; 17 p
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A highly adaptable and extensible method for predicting four-dimensional trajectories of civil aircraft has been developed. This method, Behavior-Based Trajectory Prediction, is based on taxonomic concepts developed for the description and comparison of trajectory prediction software. A hierarchical approach to the "behavioral" layer of a point-mass model of aircraft flight, a clear separation between the "behavioral" and "mathematical" layers of the model, and an abstraction of the methods of integrating differential equations in the "mathematical" layer have been demonstrated to support aircraft models of different types (in particular, turbojet vs. turboprop aircraft) using performance models at different levels of detail and in different formats, and promise to be easily extensible to other aircraft types and sources of data. The resulting trajectories predict location, altitude, lateral and vertical speeds, and fuel consumption along the flight path of the subject aircraft accurately and quickly, accounting for local conditions of wind and outside air temperature. The Behavior-Based Trajectory Prediction concept was implemented in NASA's Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) flight-optimizing cockpit software application.
    Keywords: Air Transportation and Safety; Computer Programming and Software
    Type: NF1676L-25563 , AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference (AVIATION 2017); 5-9 Jun. 2017; Denver, CO; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The Dynamic Multi-track Airways (DMA) Concept for Air Traffic Management (ATM) proposes a network of high-altitude airways constructed of multiple, closely spaced, parallel tracks designed to increase en-route capacity in high-demand airspace corridors. Segregated from non-airway operations, these multi-track airways establish high-priority traffic flow corridors along optimal routes between major terminal areas throughout the National Airspace System (NAS). Air traffic controllers transition aircraft equipped for DMA operations to DMA entry points, the aircraft use autonomous control of airspeed to fly the continuous-airspace airway and achieve an economic benefit, and controllers then transition the aircraft from the DMA exit to the terminal area. Aircraft authority within the DMA includes responsibility for spacing and/or separation from other DMA aircraft. The DMA controller is responsible for coordinating the entry and exit of traffic to and from the DMA and for traffic flow management (TFM), including adjusting DMA routing on a daily basis to account for predicted weather and wind patterns and re-routing DMAs in real time to accommodate unpredicted weather changes. However, the DMA controller is not responsible for monitoring the DMA for traffic separation. This report defines the mature state concept, explores its feasibility and performance, and identifies potential benefits. The report also discusses (a) an analysis of a single DMA, which was modeled within the NAS to assess capacity and determine the impact of a single DMA on regional sector loads and conflict potential; (b) a demand analysis, which was conducted to determine likely city-pair candidates for a nationwide DMA network and to determine the expected demand fraction; (c) two track configurations, which were modeled and analyzed for their operational characteristic; (d) software-prototype airborne capabilities developed for DMA operations research; (e) a feasibility analysis of key attributes in the concept design; (f) a near-term, transitional application of the DMA concept as a proving ground for new airborne technologies; and (g) conclusions. The analysis indicates that the operational feasibility of a national DMA network faces significant challenges, especially for interactions between DMAs and between DMA and non-DMA traffic. Provided these issues are resolved, sectors near DMAs could experience significant local capacity benefits.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Type: NASA/TP-2008-215323 , L-19462
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: To support the need for increased flexibility and capacity in the future National Airspace System, NASA is pursuing an approach that distributes air traffic separation and management tasks to both airborne and ground-based systems. Details of the distributed operations and the benefits and technical challenges of such a system are discussed. Technology requirements and research issues are outlined, and NASA s approach for establishing concept feasibility, which includes development of the airborne automation necessary to support the concept, is described.
    Keywords: Research and Support Facilities (Air)
    Type: AIAA Paper 99-3989
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: In anticipation of a projected rise in demand for air transportation, NASA and the FAA are researching new air-traffic-management (ATM) concepts that fall under the paradigm known broadly as ":free flight". This paper documents the software development and engineering efforts in progress by Seagull Technology, to develop a free-flight simulation (FFSIM) that is intended to help NASA researchers test mature-state concepts for free flight, otherwise referred to in this paper as distributed air / ground traffic management (DAG TM). Under development is a distributed, human-in-the-loop simulation tool that is comprehensive in its consideration of current and envisioned communication, navigation and surveillance (CNS) components, and will allow evaluation of critical air and ground traffic management technologies from an overall systems perspective. The FFSIM infrastructure is designed to incorporate all three major components of the ATM triad: aircraft flight decks, air traffic control (ATC), and (eventually) airline operational control (AOC) centers.
    Keywords: Computer Programming and Software
    Type: AIAA Paper 99-4193
    Format: application/pdf
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