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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique (EOT). Each time a source in our catalog is occulted by (or exits occultation by) the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors for daily monitoring. Light curves, updated daily, are available on our website http://heastro.phys.lsu.edu/gbm. Our software is also capable of performing the Earth occultation monitoring using up to 128 energy bands, or any combination of those bands, using our 128-channel, 4-s CSPEC data. The GBM BGO detectors, sensitive from about 200 keV to 40 keV, can also be used with this technique. In our standard application of the EOT, we use a catalog of sources to drive the measurements. To ensure that our catalog is complete, our team has developed an Earth occultation imaging method. In this talk, I will describe both techniques and the current data products available. I will highlight recent and important results from the GBM EOT, including the current status of our observations of hard X-ray variations in the Crab Nebula.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: M14-3744 , Fermi Asian Network Workshop; Jul 28, 2014 - Aug 01, 2014; Yilan; Taiwan, Province of China
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: SuperHERO is a new high-sensitivity Long Duration Balloon (LDB)-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The proposed SuperHERO payload will be developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the Solar Physics Laboratory and Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently launched from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013. The HEROES core instrument is a hard x-ray telescope consisting of x-ray 109 optics configured into 8 modules. Each module is aligned to a matching gas-filled detector at a focal length of 6 m. SuperHERO will make significant improvements to the HEROES payload, including: new solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, additional optics, the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer, alignment monitoring systems and lighter gondola.
    Keywords: Astronomy; Solar Physics
    Type: M14-3645 , SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014; Jun 22, 2014 - Jun 27, 2014; Montreal, Quebec; Canada
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: EXO 2030+375, a 42-s accreting pulsar in a 46-day orbit around a Be star, has undergone a detected outburst at nearly every periastron passage since 1991. It has been monitored with BATSE, RXTE, and Fermi/GBM. We will present preliminary results of long-term monitoring, including a long-term frequency history, long-term pulsed flux measurements, and available long ]term optical/ir monitoring results.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: M11-0561 , BeXRB 2011; Jul 11, 2011 - Jul 14, 2011; Valencia; Spain
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi comprises 12 NaI detectors spanning the 8-1000 keV band and 2 BGO detectors spanning the 100 keV to 40 MeV band. These detectors view the entire unocculted sky, providing long (approximately 40 ks/day) observations of accreting pulsars daily, which allow long-term monitoring of spin-frequencies and pulsed uxes via epoch-folded searches plus daily blind searches for new pulsars. Phase averaged uxes can be measured using the Earth occultation technique. In this talk I will present highlights of GBM accretion-powered pulsar monitoring such as the discovery of a torque reversal in 4U1626-67, a high-energy QPO in A0535+26, and evidence for a stable accretion disk in OAO 1657-415.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: M12-1587 , 39th COSPAR Scientific Assembly; Jul 14, 2012 - Jul 22, 2012; Mysore; India
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  • 5
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The Fermi Gamma ray Burst Monitor is an all-sky instrument sensitive to photons from about 8 keV to 40 MeV. I will summarize highlights from the first year, including triggered observations of gamma ray bursts, soft gamma ray repeaters, and terrestrial gamma flashes, and observations in the continuous data of X-ray binaries and accreting X-ray pulsars. GBM provides complementary observations to Swift/BAT, observing many of the same sources, but over a wider energy range.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: M09-0772 , The Swift Mission Conference: Celebrating 5 Years; Nov 17, 2009 - Nov 20, 2009; State College, PA; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: We describe the Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays (STROBE-X), a probe-class mission concept that will provide an unprecedented view of the X-ray sky, performing timing and spectroscopy over both a broad energy band (0.2-30 keV) and a wide range of timescales from microseconds to years. STROBE-X comprises two narrow-field instruments and a wide field monitor. The soft or low-energy band (0.2-12 keV) is covered by an array of lightweight optics (3-m focal length) that concentrate incident photons onto small solid-state detectors with CCD-level (85-175 eV) energy resolution, 100 ns time resolution, and low background rates. This technology has been fully developed for NICER and will be scaled up to take advantage of the longer focal length of STROBE-X. The higher-energy band (2-30 keV) is covered by large-area, collimated silicon drift detectors that were developed for the European LOFT mission concept. Each instrument will provide an order of magnitude improvement in effective area over its predecessor (NICER in the soft band and RXTE in the hard band). Finally, STROBE-X offers a sensitive wide-field monitor (WFM), both to act as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients and also to provide high duty-cycle, high time-resolution, and high spectral-resolution monitoring of the variable X-ray sky. The WFM will boast approximately 20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE All-Sky Monitor, enabling multi-wavelength and multi-messenger investigations with a large instantaneous field of view. This mission concept will be presented to the 2020 Decadal Survey for consideration.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN66148 , Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2018: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray; 10699; 1069919|SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; Jun 12, 2018 - Jun 14, 2018; Austin, TX; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: Studying the physical processes occurring in the region just above the magnetic polesof strongly magnetized, accreting binary neutron stars is essential to our understanding of stellarand binary system evolution. Perhaps more importantly, it provides us with a natural laboratoryfor studying the physics of high temperature and density plasmas exposed to extreme radiation,gravitational, and magnetic fields. Observations over the past decade have shed new light on themanner in which plasma falling at near the speed of light onto a neutron star surface is halted. Recentadvances in modeling these processes have resulted in direct measurement of the magnetic fieldsand plasma properties. On the other hand, numerous physical processes have been identified thatchallenge our current picture of how the accretion process onto neutron stars works. Observationand theory are our essential tools in this regime because the extreme conditions cannot be duplicatedon Earth. This white paper gives an overview of the current theory, the outstanding theoreticaland observational challenges, and the importance of addressing them in contemporary astrophysicsresearch.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN66958
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Moon Burst Energetics All-sky Monitor (MoonBEAM) is a CubeSat concept of deploying gamma-ray detectors in cislunar space to increase gamma-ray burst detections and improve localization precision with the timing triangulation technique. A gamma-ray instrument in cislunar orbit will have greatly reduced sky blockage compared to instruments in low Earth orbit. Working in conjunction with another instrument in low Earth orbit, MoonBEAM can also help constrain the arrival direction of the wavefront to an annulus on the sky by utilizing the light arrival times between the different orbits. This method has been demonstrated by the Interplanetary Gamma- Ray Burst Timing Network. However, delays in data downlink for instruments outside the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite network prevent rapid follow-up observations. We present here a gamma-ray CubeSat concept in Earth-Moon L3 halo orbit that is capable of faster response and provide a timing baseline for localization improvement. Such an instrument would aid in the gravitational wave follow-up observations in other wavelengths to identify the gamma-ray burst afterglow and kilonova emission. Reducing the region of interest makes identifying afterglows much faster, allowing for rapid on-source observations and monitoring of the rise and decay times. It will also prevent source confusion between two transients and enable robust association. A gamma-ray detection could also increase the confidence of a simultaneous but marginal gravitational wave signal, extending the detection horizon. MoonBEAM is a 12U CubeSat concept of deploying gamma-ray detectors in cislunar space to increase gamma-ray burst detections and improve localization precision with the timing triangulation technique. Such an instrument would probe the extreme processes in cosmic collision of compact objects and facilitate multi-messenger time-domain astronomy to explore the end of stellar life cycles and black hole formations.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN60786 , International Fermi Symposium; Oct 14, 2018 - Oct 19, 2018; Baltimore, MD; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008 to August 2010, approximately 7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes were nebular. From 2001 to 2010, the Crab nebula flux measured with RXTE/PCA was particularly variable, changing by up to approximately 3.5% per year in the 15-50 keV band. These variations were confirmed with INTEGRAL/SPI starting in 2003, Swift/BAT starting in 2005, and Fermi GBM starting in 2008. Before 2001 and since 2010, the Crab nebula flux has appeared more stable, varying by less than 2% per year. I will present updated light curves in multiple energy bands for the Crab nebula, including recent data from Fermi GBM, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL and MAXI, and a 16-year long light curve from RXTE/PCA.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: M13-2408 , High Energy Astrophysics Division 2013; Apr 07, 2013 - Apr 11, 2013; Monterey, CA; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Inspired by a recent paper (Kirsch et al. 2005) on possible use of the Crab Nebula as a standard candle for calibrating X-ray response func tions, we examine possible consequences of intrinsic departures from a single (absorbed) power law upon such calibrations. We limited our analyses to three more modern X-ray instruments -- the ROSAT/PSPC, th e RXTE/PCA, and the XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn. The results are unexpected an d indicate a need to refine two of the three response functions studi ed. The implications for Chandra will be discussed.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: M09-0752 , Chandra Calibration Workshop; Sep 21, 2009; Boston, MA; United States
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