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  • 1
    ISSN: 1467-6486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Using 136 cases of strategic decision-making described by a number of variables drawn from the literature, three distinct types of decision-making processes are found. These are termed sporadic, fluid and constricted processes. They are parsimonious characterizations of decision-making processes which, given the variety of the 30 organizations from which the cases are drawn, should be generalizable to a wide range of contexts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of management studies 23 (1986), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Organizations in the voluntary sector have received relatively little attention from researchers in the field of organizational analysis. In particular, the strategy of organizations in the voluntary sector has been assumed to be passive, concentrating on a co-operative role with commercial or public agencies. This article argues that such a picture is not necessarily accurate and examines the strategies of four leading British voluntary organizations. Data suggest that co-operation is but one of many strategies pursued by some voluntary organizations. Two of the sample organizations deviate markedly from the stereo-typical image of co-operation, and variation in their strategy choice is argued to emanate from dependence relations created by organizational links. The paper argues that the influences which shape the choice of strategy in voluntary organizations are primarily those created by inter-dependence, and that aspects of task and ambiguity are secondary sources of influence.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1467-6486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: This paper presents a framework for the comparative analysis of strategic decision-making processes. It draws together and integrates predominant but previously disparate theories of decision-making. Examples are given of how decision-making processes may be characterized and, hence, facilitate comparison across all types of strategic decisions. Explanation of why decision processes may differ is from two perspectives. First, the complexity of the topic may lead to particular characteristics of the decision process. Secondly, the cleavage of interests which a topic arouses may also lead to particular aspects of decision processes. We argue that each decision topic has varying levels of both complexity and cleavage and four examples of strategic decisions are analyzed on these dimensions. We identify four profiles of decision-making processes associated with varying levels of complexity and cleavage and we finally suggest that our model may explain and empirically demonstrate variations across a large number of diverse strategic decisions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1467-8551
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: In this paper results from parallel large scale studies of strategic decision making in Sweden and the United Kingdom are reported. Swedish decision makers are found to employ a decision making style which emphasizes negotiation within a restricted group. This style, which involves considerable information search, leads to very long decision times. Strategic decisions in Britain are made among groups which include fewer strongly committed participants. Delays are common and often serious, but do not lengthen the process unduly. Decision styles in both countries include contrasting tendencies which produce a dynamic tension in the decision arena.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Boston, USA : Blackwell Publishers Ltd
    Computational intelligence 17 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8640
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Experience with the growing number of large-scale and long-term case-based reasoning (CBR) applications has led to increasing recognition of the importance of maintaining existing CBR systems. Recent research has focused on case-base maintenance (CBM), addressing such issues as maintaining consistency, preserving competence, and controlling case-base growth. A set of dimensions for case-base maintenance, proposed by Leake and Wilson, provides a framework for understanding and expanding CBM research. However, it also has been recognized that other knowledge containers can be equally important maintenance targets. Multiple researchers have addressed pieces of this more general maintenance problem, considering such issues as how to refine similarity criteria and adaptation knowledge. As with case-base maintenance, a framework of dimensions for characterizing more general maintenance activity, within and across knowledge containers, is desirable to unify and understand the state of the art, as well as to suggest new avenues of exploration by identifying points along the dimensions that have not yet been studied. This article presents such a framework by (1) refining and updating the earlier framework of dimensions for case-base maintenance, (2) applying the refined dimensions to the entire range of knowledge containers, and (3) extending the theory to include coordinated cross-container maintenance. The result is a framework for understanding the general problem of case-based reasoner maintenance (CBRM). Taking the new framework as a starting point, the article explores key issues for future CBRM research.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0622
    Keywords: p-adic integers ; Hexagonal tilings ; Isomorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The primary goal of this paper is to prove that a ring defined by L. Gibson and D. Lucas is isomorphic to the ring of 7-adic integers. The ring, denoted byR 2, arises naturally as an algebraic structure associated with a hexagonal lattice. The elements ofR 2 consist of all infinite sequences in ℤ/(7). The addition and multiplication operations are given in terms of remainder and carries tables. The Generalized Balanced Ternary, denoted byG, is the subring ofR 2 consisting of all the finite sequences ofR 2. IfI k ′ is the ideal ofG consisting of all those sequences whose firstk digits are zero, then the second goal of the paper is to show that the inverse limit ofG/I k ′ is also isomorphic to the 7-adic integers.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0305-7410
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archives
    Topics: Linguistics and Literary Studies , History , Political Science , Sociology , Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
    The @China quarterly 57 (1974), S. 1-1 
    ISSN: 0305-7410
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archives
    Topics: Linguistics and Literary Studies , History , Political Science , Sociology , Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of management studies 22 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: The perceived importance of seven power factors to two types of intradepartmental decision are examined: those which a manager takes alone and those which are taken in a group composed of departmental members only. the major findings from this examination are that while formal authority is important in the former situation it is of lesser importance in the latter situation; the reverse is true for personality. We conclude that decision method has a pronounced effect upon the relative importance of power factors. Secondary analysis of the data suggests that group composition also has a marked effect but that issue domain has a negligible effect. Nevertheless, managerial expertise remains dominantly important throughout the whole range of decision-making situations; this finding also concurs with the results from our companion paper (Kenny and Wilson, 1984).
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK and Boston, USA : Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
    Journal of management studies 39 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: This paper reports on the results of an in-depth study of how a top management team (TMT) puts strategy into practice in a UK university. A study of the top team in Warwick University was conducted to analyse how strategy was formulated and implemented. The results suggest that a combination of two broad theoretical lenses provides useful analytical insight. These are strategy as practice and strategy as process. The main elements of this university’s strategy result from an interplay of localized routines and patterns of action within an organizational context, which both produces and is a product of such actions. The TMT itself was found to be clearly identifiable and stable in composition. The team exhibited identifiable patterns of strategic thinking and acting. However, the role of organizational structure was also found to be a key influence on the actions and processes of the TMT with strong central control tendencies in the team being counterbalanced by devolved operational control to individual departments. The data also reveal inter-relationships between organizational structures and the TMT in four key areas: direction-setting, monitoring and control, the alloca- tion of resources, and processes of interaction. The overall conclusion is that to understand how strategy is practised, analysis needs to focus on how patterns of action are associated with the characteristics of both the team and the wider organization. The nature and characteristics of these patterns can be related to how strategy is put into practice.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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