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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1424
    Keywords: antidiuretic hormone ; coated pits ; cortical collecting tubule ; endocytosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Antidiuretic hormone increases the water permeability of the cortical collecting tubule and causes the appearance of intramembrane particle aggregates in the apical plasma membrane of principal cells. Particle aggregates are located in apical membrane coated pits during stimulation of collecting ducts with ADHin situ. Removal of ADH causes a rapid decline in water permeability. We evaluated apical membrane retrieval associated with removal of ADH by studying the endocytosis of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from an isotonic solution in the lumen. HRP uptake was quantified enzymatically and its intracellular distribution examined by electron microscopy. When tubules were perfused with HRP for 20 min in the absence of ADH, HRP uptake was 0.5±0.3 pg/min/μm tubule length (n=6). The uptake of HRP in tubules exposed continuously to ADH during the 20-min HRP perfusion period was 1.3±0.8 pg/min/μm (n=8). HPR uptake increased markedly to 3.2±1.1 pg/min/μm (n=14), when the 20-min period of perfusion with HRP began immediately after removal of ADH from the peritubular bath. Endocytosis of HRP occurred in both principal and intercalated cells via apical membrane coated pits. We suggest that the rapid decline in cortical collecting duct water permeability which occurs following removal of ADH is mediated by retrieval of water permeable membrane via coated pits.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-675X
    Keywords: Annexin V ; apoptosis ; caspase ; gemcitabine ; ovarian cancer ; staurosporine.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A variety of chemotherapeutic agents induce cell death via apoptosis. We had shown previously that gemcitabine (2′,2′-difluorodeoxycytidine) induced an atypical apoptosis in BG-1 human ovarian cancer cells; therefore, further studies were conducted to characterize more precisely gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in BG-1 cells compared to a general inducer of apoptosis, staurosporine. BG-1 cells exposed to 0.5, 1.0 and 10 μM gemcitabine for 8 h, or staurosporine (1.0 μM) for 6 h, exhibited high molecular weight DNA fragmentation (50 kbp); however, only staurosporine treatment produced internucleosomal DNA fragments (200 bp) in a laddered pattern on the agarose gel. Staurosporine (1.0 μM) rapidly induced phosphatidylserine plasma membrane translocation that increased linearly with time as measured by annexin V-FITC binding, and similar kinetics were observed for caspase activation by staurosporine in BG-1 cells. In contrast, 10 μM gemcitabine increased phosphatidylserine expression in a small fraction of cells (5–10%) vs. untreated controls over the course of 48 h and significant caspase activity was detected within 12 h of drug exposure. Time-lapse video microscopy of BG-1 cells exposed to 1.0 μM staurosporine or 10 μM gemcitabine for up to 72 h showed that the morphologic changes and kinetics of cell death induced by these agents differed significantly. We also evaluated the apoptosis induced by paclitaxel (a mitotic poison) and cisplatin (an agent not dependent on cell cycle functions) in BG-1 cells by these methods because these drugs are used clinically to treat ovarian cancer. Our findings demonstrate that the kinetics of apoptotic cell death induced by gemcitabine and other chemotherapeutic agents should be taken into account when designing treatment strategies for ovarian cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 128 (1986), S. 18-22 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Internalization of EGF and transferrin measured as the rate of uptake of 125l-labeled ligands was compared in the cell line CCL39 and a mutant derivative, PS120, lacking the Na+/H+ antiport system. No significant alteration was detected between the two cell lines. In contrast, pretreatment of the mutant cells PS-120 with 20 mM NH4Cl for 30 min to decrease persistently intracellular pH resulted in an increase in 125I-EGF and 125I-transferrin uptake by 60% and 25%, respectively. However, similar NH4Cl pretreatment of the parental cell line, CCL-39, which only affected intracellular pH very transiently did not cause an increase of ligand uptake. The binding of 125I-EGF to CCL-39 and PS-120 cells with or without NH4Cl pretreatment showed that NH4Cl pretreatment did not affect EGF binding in either CCL-39 or PS-120 cells. Since cells regulate intracellular pH by ion transport systems, we also examined the role of Na+, K+-ATPase. Ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+, K+-ATPases, showed no effect on 125I-EGF uptake in either of the cell types with or without NH4Cl pretreatment. Taken together, these results suggest that the plasma membrane-bound Na+/H+ antiport, a major pHi-regulating system in vertebrates, indirectly plays a role in ligand internalization through regulation of intracellular pH.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 43 (1981), S. 239-250 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-05-08
    Description: Genetic evidence from patients with mutations of the thyroid hormone receptor α gene (THRA) indicates that the dominant negative activity of mutants underlies the pathological manifestations. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TRα1 mutants exert dominant negative activity in vivo are not clear. We tested the hypothesis that the severe...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-10-19
    Description: Mutations in the ligand-binding domain of the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) lead to resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH). These TRβ mutants function in a dominant-negative fashion to interfere with the transcription activity of wild-type thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), leading to dysregulation of the pituitary–thyroid axis and resistance in peripheral tissues. The molecular mechanism by which TRβ mutants cause RTH has been postulated to be an inability of the mutants to properly release the nuclear corepressors (NCORs), thereby inhibiting thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated transcription activity. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we crossed ThrbPV mice (a model of RTH) expressing a human TRβ mutant (PV) with mice expressing a mutant Ncor1 allele (Ncor1ΔID mice) that cannot recruit a TR or a PV mutant. Remarkably, in the presence of NCOR1ΔID, the abnormally elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone and TH levels found in ThrbPV mice were modestly but significantly corrected. Furthermore, thyroid hyperplasia, weight loss, and other hallmarks of RTH were also partially reverted in mice expressing NCOR1ΔID. Taken together, these data suggest that the aberrant recruitment of NCOR1 by RTH TRβ mutants leads to clinical RTH in humans. The present study suggests that therapies aimed at the TR–NCOR1 interaction or its downstream actions could be tested as potential targets in treating RTH.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-04-18
    Description: Mutations of the thyroid hormone receptor α gene ( THRA ) cause hypothyroidism in patients with growth and developmental retardation, and skeletal dysplasia. Genetic evidence indicates that the dominant negative activity of TRα1 mutants underlies pathological manifestations. Using a mouse model of hypothyroidism caused by a dominant negative TRα1PV mutant and its derived mouse model harboring a mutated nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR1ID) ( Thra1 PV/+ Ncor1 ID/ID mice), we recently showed that aberrant release of TRα1 mutants from the NCOR1 repressor complex mediates dominant negative actions of TRα1 mutants in vivo . We tested the hypothesis that deacetylation of nucleosomal histones associated with aberrant recruitment of corepressors by TRα1 mutants underlies pathological phenotypic expression. We treated Thra1 PV/+ and Thra1 PV/+ Ncor1 ID/ID mice with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxyamic acid (SAHA). SAHA significantly ameliorated the impaired growth, bone development and adipogenesis of Thra1 PV/+ mice. In Thra1 PV/+ Ncor1 ID/ID mice, SAHA improved these abnormalities even further. We focused our molecular analyses on how SAHA improved the impaired adipogenesis leading to the lean phenotype. We found that SAHA reverted the impaired adipogenesis by de-repressing the expression of the two master regulators of adipogenesis, C/ebpα and Ppar, as well as other adipogenic genes at both the mRNA and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses indicated SAHA increased the extent of acetylation of nucleosomal H4K5 and H3 to re-activate adipogenic genes to reverting adipogenesis. Thus, HDAC confers in vivo aberrant actions of TRα1 mutants. Importantly, for the first time, the present studies show that HDAC inhibitors are clearly beneficial for hypothyroidism and could be therapeutics for treatment.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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