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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Washington, DC : United States Gov. Print. Off.
    Associated volumes
    Call number: SR 90.0001(1158-C)
    In: U.S. Geological Survey bulletin
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: III, C-15 S. + 1 pl.
    Series Statement: U.S. Geological Survey bulletin 1158-C
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    New York : Wiley
    Call number: AWI A6-92-0306 ; MOP 46247
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XVII, 477 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Edition: second editon
    ISBN: 0471059714
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: Abbreviations. - Partial List of Symbols. - 1 THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS. - 1-1 Introduction. - 1-2 Equation of Motion. - 1-3 Continuity Equation. - 1-4. - Equation of State. - 1-5 First Law of Thermodynamics. - 1-6 The Complete System of Equations. - 1-7 Coordinate Systems. - 1-8 Map Projections. - 1-8-1 Polar Stereographic Projection. - 1-8-2 Mercator Projection. - 1-8-3 Lambert Conformal Projection. - 1-8-4 Additional Remarks. - 1-9 Alternate Vertical Coordinates. - 1-9-1 Pressure Vertical Coordinate. - 1-9-2 Isentropic Vertical Coordinate Θ. - 1-10 Some Energy Relations. - 1-10-1 Kinetic Energy. - 1-10-2 Potential Energy. - 1-11 Available Potential Energy. - 1-12 Vorticity and Divergence Equations. - 1-12-1 Divergence Equations. - 2 WAVE MOTION IN THE ATMOSPHERE: PART 1. - 2-1 Introduction. - 2-2 Linearized Equations. - 2-3 Pure Sound Waves. - 2-4 Sound Waves and Internal Gravity Waves. - 2-5 Surface Gravity Waves. - 2-6 Inertial Gravity Waves and Rossby Waves. - 2-7 Response to Initial Conditions. - 2-8 Geostrophic Adiustment. - 3 SCALE ANALYSIS. - 3-1 Introduction. - 3-2 Shallow-Water Equations. - 3-3 Baroclinic Equations. - 3-4 Midlatitude Analysis. - 3-5 Tropics. - 3-6 Planetary Scale. - 3-7 Balance System. - 4 ATMOSPHERIC WAVES: PART. - 4-1 Introduction. - 4-2 Rossby Waves. - 4-3 Conditions for Barotropic Instability. - 4-4 Some Unstable Profiles. - 4-5 Linear Shear. - 4-6 Barotropic Effects in the Atmosphere. - 4-7 Baroclinic Instability. - 4-8 Baroclinic Instability with Linear Shear. - 4-9 Two-Level Model. - 4-10 Wave Structure. - 4-11 Vertical Energy Propagation. - 4-12 Barotropic Equatorial Waves. - 4-13 Vertical Structure of Equatorial Waves. - 5 NUMERICAL METHODS. - 5-1 Introduction. - 5-2 Finite Difference Methods. - 5-3 The Advection Equation. - 5-4 Some Basic Concepts. - 5-5 Stability Analysis. - 5-5-1 The Matrix Method. - 5-5-2 Von Neumann Method. - 5-5-3 The Energy Method. - 5-6 Examples of the Von Neumann Method. - 5-6-1 Euler Scheme. - 5-6-2 Uncentered Differencing, Von Neumann Method. - 5-6-3 Trapezoidal Implicit Scheme. - 5-6-4 Euler Backward Scheme. - 5-6-5 Fourth-Order Space Differencing. - 5-6-6 Oscillation Equation. - 5-6-7 Two-Dimensional Advection Equation. - 5-6-8 External Gravity Waves, Leapfrog Scheme. - 5-6-9 Staggered Grid. - 5-7 Forward-Backward Scheme, Pressure Averaging, and Semi-Implicit Methods. - 5-7-1 Forward-Backward Scheme. - 5-7-2 Pressure Averaging. - 5-7-3 Time Averaging. - 5-7-4 Semi-Implicit Method. - 5-7-5 Lax Wendroff Scheme. - 5-8 A Summary of Some Difference Schemes. - 5-9 Parabolic Equations. - 5-10 Elliptic Equations. - 5-10-1 Relaxation Method. - 5-10-2 Direct Methods. - 5-10-3 Gaussian Elimination. - 5-10-4 Buneman Variant. - 5-10-5 Helmholtz Equation on a Sphere. - 5-10-6 Reduction of a Three-Dimensional Elliptic Equation to Two-Dimensional Equations. - 5-11 Nonlinear Instability and Aliasing. - 5-11-1 Discrete Mesh. - 5-11-2 Primitive Equations Considerations. - 6 GALERKIN METHODS. - 6-1 Introduction. - 6-2 Example with Spectral and Finite Element Methods. - 6-3 Time Dependence. - 6-4 Barotropic Vorticity Equation with Fourier Basis Functions. - 6-5 Transform Method. - 6-6 Spectral Model of Shallow-Water Equations. - 6-7 Advection Equation with Finite Elements. - 6-8 Barotropic Vorticity Equation with Finite Elements. - 7 NUMERICAL PREDICTION MODELS. - 7-1 Filtered Models. - 7-1-1 Quasi-Geostrophic Equivalent Barotropic Model. - 7-1-1-1 Energetics of the Barotropic Model. - 7-1-2 Quasi-Geostrophic Multilevel Baroclinic Model. - 7-1-3 Linear Balanced Model. - 7-1-4 Nonlinear Balanced Model. - 7-2 Primitive Equation Models. - 7-2-1 Constraints from Continuous Equations. - 7-2-2 Vertical Differencing. - 7-3 Staggered Grid Systems. - 7-4 Example of a Staggered Primitive Equation Model. - 7-4-1 Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates. - 7-4-2 Horizontal Differencing. - 7-4-3 Energy Conservation. - 7-5 Potential Enstrophy Conserving Scheme. - 7-5-1 Continuous Integral Constraints. - 7-5-2 Difference Equations. - 7-5-3 Constraints Enforced. - 7-6 Spherical Grids. - 7-7 Fine Mesh Modeling. - 7-7-1 One-Way Influence. - 7-7-2 Boundary Conditions. - 7-7-3 Two-Way Interaction. - 7-7-4 Initialization on a Bounded Region. - 7-8 Baroclinic Spectral Models. - 7-9 Isentropic Coordinate Models. - 7-10 Upper Boundary Conditions. - 7-11 Mountain Effects. - 8 BOUNDARY LAYER REPRESENTATIONS. - 8-1 Introduction. - 8-2 Reynolds Equations. - 8-3 Bulk Formulas. - 8-4 Eddy Viscosity, K-Theory. - 8-5 Combined Prandtl and Ekman Layers. - 8-5-1 Prandtl Layer (Neutral Stratification). - 8-5-2 Ekman Layer. - 8-6 Nonneutral Surface Layer. - 8-6-1 Matching Ekman Spiral. - 8-7 Similarity Solutions for the Entire PBL. - 8-7-1 Deardorff Mixed Layer Model. - 8-7-2 Surface Layer. - 8-7-3 Matching Solutions for the Surface and Mixed Layers. - 8-7-4 Surface Wind Direction. - 8-7-5 Modified Transfer Coefficients. - 8-8 A Prediction Equation for h. - 8-8-1 Further Comments on PBL Parameterization. - 8-9 High-Resolution Model. - 8-9-1 The Coefficient of Eddy Viscosity. - 8-9-2 Surface Temperature. - 8-9-3 Some Prediction Model Details. - 8-10 Mean Turbulent Field Closure Models (Second-Order Closure). - 9 INCLUSION OF MOISTURE. - 9-1 Moisture Conservation Equation. - 9-1-1 Modified Thermodynamic Equation. - 9-1-2 Equivalent Potential Temperature and Static Energy. - 9-2 Convective Adjustment. - 9-2-1 Case A. Dry Convection, q 〈 qs. - 9-2-2 Case B. Moist Adjustment q ≥ qs. - 9-3 Modeling Cloud Processes. - 9-3-1 Nonconvective Condensation. - 9-4 Cumulus Parameterization. - 9-4-1 Introduction. - 9-4-2 Kuo Method. - 9-5 Parameterizations Involving Cloud Models. - 9-6 Arakawa and Schubert Model. - 9-6-1 Large-Scale Budget Equations. - 9-6-2 Cloud Budget Equations. - 10 RADIATION PARAMETERIZATION. - 10-1 Terrestrial Radiation. - 10-2 Absorbing Substances. - 10-3 Simplified Transmission Functions. - 10-4 Discretization, Long-Wave Radiation. - 10-4-1 Clear Sky. - 10-4-2 Cloudy Sky. - 10-5 Solar Radiation. - 10-5-1 Clear Sky. - 10-5-2 Cloudy Sky, One Cloud Layer. - 10-5-3 Two Contiguous Cloud Layers. - 10-5-4 Two Separated Cloud Layers. - 10-6 Miscellany. - 11 OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS AND INITIALIZATION. - 11-1 Introduction. - 11-2 A Three-Dimensional Analysis. - 11-3 Statistical Methods, Multivariate Analysis. - 11-4 Initialization. - 11-4-1 Introduction. - 11-4-2 Damping Techniques. - 11-4-3 Static Initialization. - 11-4-4 Variational Method. - 11-4-5 Normal Mode Expansions. - 11-4-6 Variational Normal Mode Initialization. - 11-5 Dynamic Balancing. - 11-6 Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation. - 11-7 Newtonian Relaxation or "Nudging". - 11-8 Smoothing and Filtering. - 11-8-1 Two-Dimensional Smoothers. - 11-8-2 Bandpass Filters. - 11-8-3 Boundary Effects. - 12 OCEAN DYNAMICS AND MODELING. - 12-1 Introduction. - 12-2 Wind-Driven Barotropic Models. - 12-3 Nonlinear Effects. - 12-4 Barotropic Numerical Models. - 12-5 Simple Thermohaline Models. - 12-6 Baroclinic Numerical Models. - 12-7 Bottom Topography Effects. - 12-8 Synoptic Scale Eddies. - 12-9 Mixed Layer Models. - 12-10 Problems in Ocean Modeling. - 13 WEATHER AND CLIMATE PREDICTION. - 13-1 Introduction. - 13-2 Current Forecasting Skill. - 13-2-1 Short Range. - 13-2-2 Medium and Longer Ranges. - 13-2-3 Additional Comments on Forecasting. - 13-3 Predictability of the Atmosphere. - 13-4 Statistical-Dynamical Prediction. - 13-4-1 Simple Empirical Corrections. - 13-4-2 Stochastic-Dynamical Prediction. - 13-5 Climate and Climate Prediction. - Appendix Mathematical Relations. - References. - Index.
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: AWI Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0007-0874
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archives
    Topics: History , Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bingley : Emerald
    Managing service quality 12 (2002), S. 194-200 
    ISSN: 0960-4529
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Customer satisfaction with service companies is probably declining steadily across the developed world because it no longer matters to most people. Investors favour companies that lock in their customers irrespective of their satisfaction levels. CEOs are concerned primarily with their share price and their image, and customer satisfaction hardly influences either of these. Line managers demand that customers be profitable irrespective of their attitudes. Marketeers are finding that new technologies open up far more promising possibilities for studying both customer purchasing behaviour and the reasons behind it than satisfaction ever did. Finally, customers are being rewarded more and more for their dissatisfaction rather than their satisfaction. The only group keeping the consumer satisfaction concept alive is middle managers, who are still conditioned by their weekly fix of satisfaction statistics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1176-6093
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: This paper focuses on the need to revise the conceptualisation and measurement of evaluative style in future Reliance on Accounting Performance Measures (RAPM) research. Based on a review of the existing literature, we identify anumber of issues in the conceptualisation and measurement of evaluative style and conclude that none of the existing measures is ideal for use in future research. We see two general dimensions of evaluative style that need specific attention in future research. The first dimension addresses the evaluative focus of the superior (e.g. budgets, other quantitative targets, short or long-term targets, etc.). The second dimension addresses the superior's way of handlingthe evaluation process (e.g. rigid or flexible, fixing blame, using it as a learning opportunity, etc.). Building on these two dimensions, there i a need for studies that assess how specific performance measures are used in different way within a particular organisational context, enabling a distinction between the design and the use of control tools. These conclusions suggest a need for qualitative indepth field studies within single organisations rather than quantitative surveyresearch across organisations in future research on evaluative style and its behavioural consequences.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: absorption rate ; bioequivalence ; Cmax/AUClqc ; Cmax/ AUC ; exposure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. The goals were to evaluate the usefulness of Cmax/AUClqc, ratio of the maximum plasma drug concentration to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve to the time of the last quantifiable concentration, in bioequivalence testing and to explore the use of exposure as a replacement for the concepts of rate and extent of drug absorption. Methods. The bioequivalence of products differing in both rate (ka) and extent (F) of absorption was assessed under conditions similar to those encountered in a typical trial. A one-compartment model drug with first-order absorption (rate constant = ka) and elimination was used. Variability was introduced in all model parameters using Monte Carlo techniques. The results were expressed in terms of the probability of declaring bioequivalence in a cross-over trial with 24 subjects using Cmax/AUClqc, AUClqc, and Cmax as bioequivalence measures. Results. The outcome of a bioequivalence trial was shown to depend on the measure. Cmax/AUClqc reflected changes in ka, but not in F. AUClqc showed dependence on F, but virtually no dependence on ka. For Cmax, a 3- to 4-fold increase in ka and a concomittant 20% decrease in F, as well as corresponding changes in the opposite directions, resulted in bioequivalent outcomes. Conclusions. It was concluded that use of Cmax/AUClqc should be discouraged and that defining bioequivalence in terms of rate and extent of absorption has major problems. The goal of bioequivalence trials should be to assure that the shape of the concentration-time curve of the test product is sufficiently similar to that of the reference product. To this end, the use of “exposure” rather than “rate and extent of absorption” concepts is encouraged.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: hydrochlorothiazide ; triamterene ; Dyazide ; Maxzide ; amiloride ; Moduretic ; food–drug interactions ; food-formulation interactions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The absorption of three combination formulations of hydrochlorothiazide and either triamterene or amiloride was studied over a 5-year period in seven separate investigations under varying conditions of food and fasting. The most widely prescribed combination, containing 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide and 50 mg of triamterene, demonstrated impaired absorption in the fasting state that was partially corrected by the addition of a breakfast high in fat. The increase in the fat content of the food appeared to correlate directly with the amount of both drugs absorbed from this formulation. The second formulation studied, a new combination formulation of 50 mg of hydrochlorothiazide and 75 mg of triamterene, demonstrated acceptable absorption in the fasting state that was not altered by the concurrent administration of a high-fat breakfast. The absorption of the third formulation, a combination of 50 mg hydrochlorothiazide and 5 mg amiloride, was acceptable in the fasting state and demonstrated a slight reduction in the absorption of the amiloride component when administered concurrently with a high-fat meal. The clinical and biopharmaceutic implications of these observations are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: nitroglycerin ; nitroglycerin metabolites ; bioequivalence ; transdermal drug delivery
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract We recently compared plasma concentrations of nitroglycerin and its two dinitrate metabolites in 16 healthy male subjects after application of two controlled-release transdermal formulations of the drug. Analysis of the resulting plasma concentration–time curves indicated that the two formulations did not produce equivalent concentrations of parent drug or either of the dinitrate metabolites during the initial period of dosing. In addition, both formulations produced concentrations of the two dinitrate metabolites that exceeded the concentration of the parent drug by severalfold. Even if the pharmacologic effect of the dinitrate metabolites is low compared to that of nitroglycerin, these higher concentrations may contribute to the effect of nitroglycerin. Scrutiny of the ratio of 1,2-glyceryl dinitrate to 1,3-glyceryl dinitrate in the 16 subjects confirmed previous observations that preferential formation of the 1,2-glycerol dinitrate metabolite may occur depending on the route of administration. This ratio may thus be indicative of the bioavailability of nitroglycerin following transdermal application. Additional data suggesting racial differences in nitroglycerin absorption after transdermal application are presented.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The highest point of the plasma concentration-time profile, C max , is currently used by regulatory agencies to assess the rate of drug absorption after single dose administration of oral products. It is, however, quite insensitive, and a number of new measures of rate have been proposed. Using simulations, several approaches toward measuring rate were tested. A set of model scenarios for drugs with typical mean characteristics and statistical distributions was investigated. Using different kinetic models of disposition, the time course of the concentration in plasma was simulated. Intraindividual and interindividual variability and assay error were modeled using Monte Carlo techniques. The accuracy, precision, and ease of use of the various measures of rate were evaluated by simulating crossover design clinical trials and then determining the probability of declaring bioequivalence as a function of differences in rates of absorption between test and reference formulations. All of the rate measures tested showed a degree of insensitivity to changes in rate and no universally superior measure was found. Indeed, the main conclusion is that the choice of a measure should be based on simulations of the particular situation in a bioequivalence trials.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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