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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract During the AIDJEX Main Experiment, April 1975 through May 1976, a comprehensive microwave sensing program was performed on the sea ice of the Beaufort Sea. Surface and aircraft measurements were obtained during all seasons using a wide variety of active and passive microwave sensors. The surface program obtained passive microwave measurements of various ice types using four antennas mounted on a tracked vehicle. In three test regions, each with an area of approximately 1.5 × 104 m2, detailed ice crystallographic, dielectric properties, and brightness temperatures of first-year, multiyear, and first-year/multiyear mixtures were measured. A NASA aircraft obtained passive microwave measurements of the entire area of the AIDJEX manned station array (triangle) during each of 18 flights. This verified the earlier reported ability to distinguish first-year and multiyear ice types and concentration and gave new information on ways to observe ice mixtures and thin ice types. The active microwave measurements from aircraft included those from an X- and L-band radar and from a scatterometer. The former is used to study a wide variety of ice features and to estimate deformations, while both are equally usable to observe ice types. With the present data, only the scatterometer can be used to distinguish positively multiyear from first-year and various types of thin ice. This is best done using coupled active and passive microwave sensing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary A microwave radiometer with channels near the 18 GHz water vapor line and in nearby windows, the Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature-2 (SSM/T-2) was launched on a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite in November of 1991. The instrument is intended to provide data for the retrieval of atmospheric water vapor profiles. Because the relationship between the radiances observed by the instrument and the water vapor profile are both non-linear and non-local and because of the influence of clouds, the interpretation of the radiances is inherently complex. Here we develop a simplified, albeit approximate, algorithm for the profile retrievals and test it with simulation studies. Specifically it is shown that for each channel of the instrument near the 183 GHz line there is a nearly constant overburden of water vapor above the height at which the atmospheric temperature equals the observed brightness temperature. This relationship, in turn, provides the basis for a simple analytic algorithm for the relative humidity immediately above that height. The simplified algorithm is useful as a first guess for iterative solutions to the non-linear equations and for a variety of analyses such as estimating the impact of uncertainty in the radiances or the temperature profile on the retrieved water vapor profile. It is also useful as a conceptual tool to aid in the understanding of the more complex algorithms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2005-11-30
    Description: Passive microwave measurements were studied for determining sea state. It was found that the brightness temperature increases due to the foam produced by winds, and that the surface wind can be determined by the brightness temperature.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Significant Accomplishments in Sci., 1970; p 22-27
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: This paper describes a method for the retrieval of total precipitable water (W) in dry atmospheres, which relies on the strong water vapor absorption line at 183 GHz (for W less than 0.6 g/sq cm) and on the absorption near 90 GHz (for W above 0.6 g/sq cm). The method is very sensitive to the variations of W less than 0.5 g/sq cm and is complementary to the established methods that use the weak 22 GHz water vapor absorption line to retrieve W in the 1-6 g/sq cm. The technique was demonstrated by the analysis of two Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder observations of dry atmospheres following cold-air outbreaks on March 13, 1983, and February 23, 1986.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Applied Meteorology (ISSN 0894-8763); 28; 146-154
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Passive microwave measurements of the Bering Sea were made with the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory during February. Microwave data were obtained with imaging and dual-polarized, fixed-beam radiometers in a range of frequencies from 10 to 183 GHz. The high resolution imagery at 92 GHz provides a particularly good description of the marginal ice zone delineating regions of open water, ice compactness, and ice-edge structure. Analysis of the fixed-beam data shows that spectral differences increase with a decrease in ice thickness. Polarization at 18 and 37 GHz distinguishes among new, young, and first-year ice types.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); GE-24; 368-377
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: All remote sensors have bias problems which vary in space and time. The infrared measurements are very sparse in cloudy areas: the SMMR has coverage limitations due to the interference of land areas and only half time operation. If one simply averaged the data from these various sources, the combination of the biases and varying sampling would introduce artifacts into the analyzed product which would reflect the sampling and which could be quite misleading. The remote sensors provide reasonable estimates of gradients of SST over length scales greater than the sensor resolution but smaller than hemispheric. Ships can be considered unbiased but are poorly distributed on small scales except in the densest shipping lanes. An analysis scheme based on a suggestion by Holl was developed which exploits just this approximately complementarity to provide an improved SST analysis. The resulting accuracy appears to be in the required approx. 0.5 C range for the particular case of using SMMR and ship data to produce two degree latitude by two degrees longitude monthly analyses.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: JPL Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature; 5 p
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Data collected with the Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder (AMMS), which operates in the 183.3 GHz range, are compared to measurements collected at 22 GHz in order to show that the 183 GHz measurements are more sensitive to total precipitable water (W) values than the 22 GHz measurements. Radiative transfer calculations for the upwelling microwave emission from the ocean surface were performed at the AMMS frequencies with a variety of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles. The derived brightness temperatures at these frequencies are compared with W values derived from the humidity profiles. It is observed that the sensitivity between the brightness temperatures and W values at the AMMS channel is greater than 130 K/g per sq cm and 12 K/g per sq cm for the 22 GHz frequency.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Selected data obtained during the first year of operation of the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus 7 satellite (launched in late October 1978) have been used to calculate, on a global basis, various geophysical parameters over open oceans, polar regions, and terrain. Over open oceans these calculations have provided values for sea surface temperatures, near-surface winds, atmospheric water vapor in a column, and rainfall rates. In polar regions, sea ice concentration, multiyear ice fraction, and radiating temperatures have been obtained. Finally, the extent and water equivalence of snow cover over terrain have been calculated. These parameters have been compared with in situ measurements of the same geophysical parameters, where available, and the results of these comparisons are described. The self-consistency of the global displays of all the parameters is discussed along with the plans for archiving them for subsequent research purposes. A description of the SMMR calibration and data processing scheme is also given.
    Keywords: GEOSCIENCES (GENERAL)
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 89; 5335-534
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Passive microwave measurements of the Bering Sea were made with the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory during February. Microwave data were obtained with imaging and dual-polarized, fixed-beam radiometers in a range of frequencies from 10 to 183 GHz. The high resolution imagery at 92 GHz provides a particularly good description of the marginal ice zone delineating regions of open water, ice compactness, and ice-edge structure. Analysis of the fixed-beam data shows that spectral differences increase with a decrease in ice thickness. Polarization at 18 and 37 GHz distinguishes among new, young, and first-year sea ice types.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: ESA IGARSS 84. Remote Sensing: From Res. towards Operational Use, Vol. 1; p 379-384
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2006-01-12
    Description: Weighting functions were developed which express the water vapor information content of microwave radiometric measurements. Retrievals of water vapor profiles are performed using these weighting functions.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: 3d NASA Weather and Climate Program Sci. Rev.; p 81-85
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