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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The accuracy of a prototype nonintrusive airdata system derived for high-angle-of-attack measurements was demonstrated for quasi-steady maneuvers as great as 55 degrees during phase one of the F-18 high alpha research vehicle flight test program. This system consists of a matrix of nine pressure ports arranged in annular rings on the aircraft nose, and estimates the complete airdata set utilizing flow modeling and nonlinear regression. Particular attention is paid to the effects of acoustical distortions within the individual pressure sensors of the HI-FADS pressure matrix. A dynamic model to quantify these effects which describes acoustical distortion is developed and solved in closed form for frequency response.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-0671
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: As part of the NASA F-14 high angle of attack flight test program, a nose mounted hemispherical flow direction sensor was calibrated against a fuselage mounted movable vane flow angle sensor. Significant discrepancies were found to exist in the angle of attack measurements. A two fold approach taken to resolve these discrepancies during subsonic flight is described. First, the sensing integrity of the isolated hemispherical sensor is established by wind tunnel data extending to an angle of attack of 60 deg. Second, two probable causes for the discrepancies, pneumatic lag and upwash, are examined. Methods of identifying and compensating for lag and upwash are presented. The wind tunnel data verify that the isolated hemispherical sensor is sufficiently accurate for static conditions with angles of attack up to 60 deg and angles of sideslip up to 30 deg. Analysis of flight data for two high angle of attack maneuvers establishes that pneumatic lag and upwash are highly correlated with the discrepancies between the hemispherical and vane type sensor measurements.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:86790 , NASA-TM-86790 , H-1314
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Flight tests were performed on an F-14 aircraft to evaluate the use of flush pressure orifices on the nose section for obtaining air data at transonic speeds over a large range of flow angles. This program was part of a flight test and wind tunnel program to assess the accuracies of such systems for general use on aircraft. It also provided data to validate algorithms developed for the shuttle entry air data system designed at NASA Langley. Data were obtained for Mach numbers between 0.60 and 1.60, for angles of attack up to 26.0 deg, and for sideslip angles up to 11.0 deg. With careful calibration, a flush air data system with all flush orifices can provide accurate air data information over a large range of flow angles. Several orificies on the nose cap were found to be suitable for determination of stagnation pressure. Other orifices on the nose section aft of the nose cap were shown to be suitable for determination of static pressure. Pairs of orifices on the nose cap provided the most sensitive measurements for determining angles of attack and sideslip, although orifices located farther aft on the nose section could also be used.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA-TP-2716 , H-1277 , NAS 1.60:2716
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Advances in aircraft control system designs have, with increasing frequency, required that air data be used as flight control feedback. This condition requires that these data be measured with accuracy and high fidelity. Most air data information is provided by pneumatic pressure measuring sensors. Typically unsteady pressure data provided by pneumatic sensing systems are distorted at high frequencies. The distortion is a result of the pressure being transmitted to the pressure sensor through a length of connective tubing. The pressure is distorted by frictional damping and wave reflection. As a result, air data provided all-flush, pneumatically sensed air data systems may not meet the frequency response requirements necessary for flight control augmentation. Both lab and flight test were performed at NASA-Ames to investigate the effects of this high frequency distortion in remotely located pressure measurement systems. Good qualitative agreement between lab and flight data are demonstrated. Results from these tests are used to describe the effects of pneumatic distortion in terms of a simple parametric model.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: H-1538 , NASA-TM-4171 , NAS 1.15:4171
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A nonintrusive high-angle-of-attack flush airdata sensing system was installed and flight tested in the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. This system consists of a matrix of 25 pressure orifices arranged in concentric circles on the nose of the vehicle to determine angles of attack and sideslip, Mach number, and pressure altitude. During the course of the flight tests, it was determined that satisfactory results could be achieved using a subset of just nine ports.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: SAE PAPER 912142
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Methods based on chi-squared analysis are presented for detecting system and individual-port failures in the high-angle-of-attack flush airdata sensing system on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. The HI-FADS hardware is introduced, and the aerodynamic model describes measured pressure in terms of dynamic pressure, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and static pressure. Chi-squared analysis is described in the presentation of the concept for failure detection and fault management which includes nominal, iteration, and fault-management modes. A matrix of pressure orifices arranged in concentric circles on the nose of the aircraft indicate the parameters which are applied to the regression algorithms. The sensing techniques are applied to the F-18 flight data, and two examples are given of the computed angle-of-attack time histories. The failure-detection and fault-management techniques permit the matrix to be multiply redundant, and the chi-squared analysis is shown to be useful in the detection of failures.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-0263
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A general numerical technique for obtaining unsteady pressure measurements using conventional pressure sensing technology has been developed. A pneumatic distortion model, based on the Navier-Stokes equations of momentum and continuity, was reduced to a low-order, state-variable model retaining most of the dynamic characteristics of the full model. The reduced-order model is coupled with results from minimum variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate the effects of pneumatic distortion. Both postflight and real-time algorithms were developed and evaluated using simulated and flight data.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: AIAA PAPER 90-0631
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A technique has been developed to improve the fidelity of airdata measurements during dynamic maneuvering. This technique is particularly useful for airdata measured during flight at high angular rates and high angles of attack. To support this research, flight tests using the F-18 high alpha research vehicle were conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center Dryden Flight Research Facility. A Kalman filter was used to combine information from research airdata, linear accelerometers, angular rate gyros, and attitude gyros to determine better estimates of airdata quantities such as angle of attack, angle of sideslip, airspeed, and altitude. This paper briefly develops the state and observation equations used by the Kalman filter and shows how the state and measurement covariance matrices were determined from flight data.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-0672
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A nonintrusive high angle-of-attack flush airdata sensing (HI-FADS) system was installed and flight-tested on the F-18 high alpha research vehicle. This paper discusses the airdata algorithm development and composite results expressed as airdata parameter estimates and describes the HI-FADS system hardware, calibration techniques, and algorithm development. An independent empirical verification was performed over a large portion of the subsonic flight envelope. Test points were obtained for Mach numbers from 0.15 to 0.94 and angles of attack from -8.0 to 55.0 deg. Angles of sideslip ranged from -15.0 to 15.0 deg, and test altitudes ranged from 18,000 to 40,000 ft. The HI-FADS system gave excellent results over the entire subsonic Mach number range up to 55 deg angle of attack. The internal pneumatic frequency response of the system is accurate to beyond 10 Hz.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 90-0232
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2009-11-17
    Description: Airplane design studies have developed configuration concepts that may produce lower sonic boom annoyance levels. Since lower noise designs differ significantly from other HSCT designs, it is necessary to accurately assess their potential before HSCT final configuration decisions are made. Flight tests to demonstrate lower noise design capability by modifying an existing airframe have been proposed for the Mach 3 SR-71 reconnaissance airplane. To support the modified SR-71 proposal, baseline in-flight measurements were made of the unmodified aircraft. These measurements of SR-71 near-field sonic boom signatures were obtained by an F-16XL probe airplane at flightpath separation distances ranging from approximately 740 to 40 ft. This paper discusses the methods used to gather and analyze the flight data, and makes comparisons of these flight data with CFD results from Douglas Aircraft Corporation and NASA Langley Research Center. The CFD solutions were obtained for the near-field flow about the SR-71, and then propagated to the flight test measurement location using the program MDBOOM.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: High-Speed Research: 1994 Sonic Boom Workshop. Configuration, Design, Analysis and Testing; 171-197; NASA/CP-1999-209699
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