Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
Abstract Strain distributions to failure, tensile and compressive strain-concentration factors, and strength-reduction factors were determined for glass-, boron-, and graphite-epoxy plates with holes loaded in tension. Strain gages, photoelastic coatings and moiré techniques were used. Ten variations of layup and stacking sequence were studied. The boron-epoxy composite was found to be the stiffest and strongest of the three. The graphite laminate with the highest stress concentration and the most linear strain response exhibited the highest strength-reduction factor. In all cases, the maximum strain at failure on the hole boundary was higher than the ultimate tensile-coupon strain. In general, it was found that, the higher the stress-concentration factor, the higher the strength-reduction factor. Thus, the [0/90/0/90]s layup with a stress-concentration factor of 4.82 had a strength-reduction factor of 3.18. At the other extreme, the most flexible layup [±45/±45]s with the lowest stress-concentration factor of 2.06 had the lowest strength-reduction factor of 1.10. Stacking sequences associated with the tensile interlaminar normal stress or high interlaminar shear stress near the boundary, resulted in laminates 10 to 20 percent weaker than corresponding alternate stacking sequences. Furthermore, it was found that stacking-sequence variations can alter the mode of failure from catastrophic to noncatastrophic.
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