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  • 1
    Call number: ILP/M 06.0134
    In: Publication of the International Lithosphere Programme
    In: Tectonophysics
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: X, 392 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: Publication of the International Lithosphere Programme 300
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 205 (1965), S. 818-818 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The difficulty of recognizing gelatinous fibres in ash suspected of containing tension wood has been remarked on by a number of authors1?4. The difficulty appears to be due to the lack of a distinct G-layer. Recently a piece of fast-grown ash came into our possession. Sections which were taken ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A total of twelve low NOx combustor configurations, embodying three different combustion concepts, were designed and fabricated as modular units. These configurations were evaluated experimentally for exhaust emission levels and for mechanical integrity. Emissions data were obtained in depth on two of the configurations.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: SR81-R-4761-21 , NASA-CR-165481 , DOE/NASA/0145-1 , NAS 1.26:165481
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Three simulated coal gas fuels based on hydrogen and carbon monoxide were tested during an experimental evaluation with a rich lean can combustor: these were a simulated Winkler gas, Lurgi gas and Blue Water gas. All three were simulated by mixing together the necessary pure component species, to levels typical of fuel gases produced from coal. The Lurgi gas was also evaluated with ammonia addition. Fuel burning in a rich lean mode was emphasized. Only the Blue Water gas, however, could be operated in such fashion. This showed that the expected NOx signature form could be obtained, although the absolute values of NOx were above the 75 ppm goals for most operating conditions. Lean combustion produced very low NOx well below 75 ppm with the Winkler and Lurgi gases. In addition, these low levels were not significantly impacted by changes in operating conditions.
    Keywords: PROPELLANTS AND FUELS
    Type: NASA-CR-167876 , NAS 1.26:167876 , DOE/NASA/0145-2 , SR82-R-4994-08
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A test rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating and minimizing the exhaust emissions, in particular NO sub x, of three advanced aircraft combustor concepts at a simulated, high altitude cruise condition. The three combustor designs, all members of the lean reaction, premixed family, are the Jet Induced Circulation (JIC) combustor, the Vortex Air Blast (VAB) combustor, and a catalytic combustor. They were rig tested in the form of reverse flow can combustors in the 0.127 m. (5.0 in.) size range. Various configuration modifications were applied to each of the initial JIC and VAB combustor model designs in an effort to reduce the emissions levels. The VAB combustor demonstrated a NO sub x level of 1.1 gm NO2/kg fuel with essentially 100% combustion efficiency at the simulated cruise combustor condition of 50.7 N/sq cm (5 atm), 833 K (1500 R) inlet pressure and temperature respectively and 1778 K (3200 R) outlet temperature on Jet-A1 fuel. Early tests on the catalytic combustor were unsuccessful due to a catalyst deposition problem and were discontinued in favor of the JIC and VAB tests. In addition emissions data were obtained on the JIC and VAB combustors at low combustor inlet pressure and temperatures that indicate the potential performance at engine off-design conditions.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER
    Type: NASA-CR-134889 , RDR-1814
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
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    ICE Publishing
    In:  Géotechnique, 62 (3). pp. 213-226.
    Publication Date: 2018-10-29
    Description: Deepwater offshore oil and gas developments require an assessment to be made of the risk of infrastructure damage from submarine slides. The likelihood and magnitude of submarine slides, and the consequent impact loading on seabed infrastructure in the path of the debris from the slide, must be estimated. Export pipelines are especially vulnerable to impact from submarine slides, because of their length and the need to cross canyons and other seabed features that are potential paths for the flowing debris. Characterising the debris material represents a particular challenge, as the original soil, which is typically characterised using conventional geotechnical methods, evolves through remoulding and water entrainment into a viscous fluid. Because of this transition from soil to fluid, characterisation of the strength of flowing fine-grained sediment has been addressed separately within a soil mechanics framework and a fluid mechanics framework, resulting in two different approaches for expressing the strain-rate-dependent strength of debris flows, and the consequential impact loads on pipelines. In this paper we compare the two approaches, and show that the geotechnical characterisation of fine-grained sediments can be extended into the liquid range in a continuous fashion. This is supported by a series of undrained shear strength measurements on two different remoulded soils, from fall cone tests, vane shear (including viscometer) tests, T-bar and ball penetrometer tests. Analysis of the results shows that the variation in shear strength over the solid and liquid ranges can be described by a unique function of water content, for a given soil. Furthermore, the effects of rate of shearing are well captured by a dimensionless function of the normalised strain rate. The geotechnical approach also accounts for the observed strength reduction due to intense shearing.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: An iterative tomographic inversion scheme is presented for determination of 2-D velocity structure from seismic refraction first-arrival traveltimes. the method is suited to refraction profiles where source/receiver spacings are denser than for conventional profiles. the inversion method is based on an iterative solution of the linearized problem, and allows for determination of continuous velocity variations as welt as geometry of subhorizontal interfaces. In each iteration, two-point ray tracing is performed using a shooting method to construct the linear system. the velocity field is defined using triangular cells within which the velocity gradient is constant, allowing analytic calculation of ray paths. Two different inversion techniques are considered, based on distinct linearized formulations of the forward problem. Inversion using a linearized traveltime-velocity Jacobian produced better results than a slowness formulation more akin to common series expansion-techniques. Resolution examples reveal horizontal smearing due to ray geometry, drop-off in resolution with depth, as well as the effect of source-receiver geometry and velocity structure on resolution. Inversion examples indicate that a global norm produces solutions closer to the true model than solutions calculated using a smallest perturbation approach, when a good starting model is available. Streak effects caused by inhomogeneous ray coverage and the removal of these effects are demonstrated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The formation of oceanic lithosphere along ocean ridges, and the role that crustal magma chambers play in the accretionary process, continue to be fundamental issues in plate tectonics. To address these issues, a multireceiver airgun/ocean-bottom seismograph refraction line was shot across the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge near 48° N, 129° W. 2-D traveltime tomography applied to the data results in a three-layer model for the upper crust. Layer 1 is 250–650 m thick, with v1= 2.5 km s−1 and ∇Vzv1= 0.5 s−1. Layer 2 is ∼800 m thick, v2= 4.8 km s−1 and ∇Vzv2= 1.0 s−1. Layer 1 and layer 2 probably represent the sequence of extrusives and the transition to layer 3 (v3= 5.8 km s−1, ∇Vzv3= 0.5 s−1) is associated with the extrusives-dike complex transition. An abrupt velocity transition between layer 1 and layer 2 may be a metamorphic front within the basalt pillows or it may be the depth to which surface fissures penetrate. A low-velocity anomaly (velocities decreased by 〈 0.45 km s−1) exists beneath the ridge in layer 2 and upper layer 3. It is interpreted as a zone of increased fracture porosity and/or permeability associated with axial hydrothermal circulation, and correlates reasonably well with a sub-axial reflector. No evidence is found for the existence of a crustal magma chamber in the depth range of 1.5–3.5 km sub-bottom. However, the velocity anomalies observed in layer 3 suggest that crustal temperatures in this layer are elevated by 150–250°C beneath and to the east of the ridge relative to temperatures west of the ridge.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1327
    Keywords: Key words Molybdenum ; Extended X-ray absorption fine structure ; Binding proteins ; Metal coordination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract  We have studied the molybdenum K-edge X-ray absorption spectra of Mo bound in the Mo-binding proteins Mop from Haemophilus influenzae, ModG from Azotobacter vinelandii and the Escherichia coli ModE transcriptional regulatory protein, and compared them with the absorption spectra of A. vinelandii ModA and monomeric molybdate. Pre-edge and extended fine structure data indicate that the Mo-binding proteins with molbindin-like domains bind tetrahedral molybdate with a Mo-O distance of 1.76 Å. The molbindin subunits or sub-domains represent a novel protein fold that is used by proteins with distinct functions to bind molybdate in the cytoplasm. The high specificity of the proteins for molybdenum does not depend on a change of coordination number or geometry.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-5217
    Keywords: Markov decision processes ; partially observable ; linear programming
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper we use an approach which uses a superharmonic property of a sequence of functions generated by an algorithm to show that these functions converge in a non-increasing manner to the optimal value function for our problem, and bounds are given for the loss of optimality if the computational process is terminated at any iteration. The basic procedure is to add an additional linear term at each iteration, selected by solving a particular optimisation problem, for which primal and dual linear programming formulations are given.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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