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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Rubber additives manufacture yields waste-waters with recalcitrant and/or toxic benzothiazole compounds. Biodegradation of such compounds was investigated in fed-batch systems. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) was best degraded by a mixture of MBT-history and non-MBT-history sludge. Concentrations up to 200 mg·l – 1 were removed. From 100 mg·l – 1 onwards, high percentages of the recalcitrant disulphide were accumulated in the sludge. MBT slowed down the biodegradation of benzothiazole-2-sulphonate. MBT and benzothiazole did not mutually influence their degradation. Under some experimental conditions high levels of unidentified so-called polar compounds were formed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract It was found that benzothiazole, 2-oxybenzothiazole and 2-benzothiazolesulphonate were degraded in activated sludge systems. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) was more resistant, although the first step in MBT degradation seemed to be transformation to the sulphonate form. At higher MBT concentrations, it was transformed into a disulphide, which accumulated in the sludge. MBT was also found to be mainly responsible for the toxicity of rubber chemical waste-water towards activated sludges. It inhibited the degradation of the other hetrocycles. Only at concentrations of around 20 ppm was MBT degraded. Mercaptobenzimidazole ranked second in resistance to degradation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Rubber additives manufacture yields waste-waters with recalcitrant and/or toxic benzothiazole compounds. Biodegradation of such compounds was investigated in fed-batch systems. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) was best degraded by a mixture of MBT-history and non-MBT-history sludge. Concentrations up to 200 mg·l−1 were removed. From 100 mg·l−1 onwards, high percentages of the recalcitrant disulphide were accumulated in the sludge. MBT slowed down the biodegradation of benzothiazole-2-sulphonate. MBT and benzothiazole did not mutually influence their degradation. Under some experimental conditions high levels of unidentified so-called polar compounds were formed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Active sludge systems containing benzothiazoles may be intoxicated by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT). This toxicity towards several bacteria is now confirmed and is situated at around 100 mg MBT l−1. Octanol-water partition coefficients indicated that MBT might interact with membrane-bound systems. This was confirmed through experiments showing that bacterial cell respiration was inhibited using lactate or succinate as substrates. Using these substrates and also NADH, it was found that their oxidation was also inhibited using isolated membrane fragments of Escherichia coli and Paracoccus denitrificans. Methylene blue reduction was also found to be inhibited. The oxidation of ascorbate was not inhibited in P. denitrificans. From these results it is suggested that MBT might interact with the respiratorychain at the level of flavoproteins or quinones and Fe-S clusters.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Active sludge systems containing benzothiazoles may be intoxicated by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT). This toxicity towards several bacteria is now confirmed and is situated at around 100 mg MBT l–1. Octanol-water partition coefficients indicated that MBT might interact with membrane-bound systems. This was confirmed through experiments showing that bacterial cell respiration was inhibited using lactate or succinate as substrates. Using these substrates and also NADH, it was found that their oxidation was also inhibited using isolated membrane fragments of Escherichia coli and Paracoccus denitrificans. Methylene blue reduction was also found to be inhibited. The oxidation of ascorbate was not inhibited in P. denitrificans. From these results it is suggested that MBT might interact with the respiratory chain at the level of flavoproteins or quinones and Fe-S clusters.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract 2-Hydroxybenzothiazole (OBT) is present in wastewaters from the industrial production of the rubber vulcanization accelerator 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT). We have achieved the first isolation of axenic bacterial cultures capable of the degradation of OBT and growth on this substrate as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. All isolates had similar characteristics corresponding to one particular isolate, which was studied in more detail and identified as Rhodococcus rhodochrous. The strains were also capable of degrading benzothiazole (BT) but not MBT or benzothiazole-2-sulphonate (BTSO3). OBT was degraded at a concentration of up to 600 mg · l−1. BT was toxic above 300 mg · l−1. MBT inhibited OBT degradation. Growth on OBT was not significantly different at pH values of between 6.3 and 7.9 or salt concentrations between 1 % and 3 %. In shake flasks the cells clumped together, which resulted in a lower rate of oxygen transfer and slower degradation as compared to cells grown on OBT in a stirred reactor.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Several strains capable of growth on 2-oxybenzothiazole (OBT) were isolated. They were all Gram-positive, spore-forming rods, tentatively identified as Bacillus species. Their mean generation time on OBT was 12 h with a cell yield coefficient of 0.63. The strains could also degrade benzothiazole but not 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) or its sulphonate form. MBT was inhibitory. The biodegradation was inhibited by a 5% NaCl concentration.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2389
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: We sought to examine the distribution of carbon (C) decomposition within the framework of the soil pore system. Soils were sampled from a transect having a natural gradient in pore-size distribution. After the addition of labelled wheat straw (13C) the repacked soil columns were incubated (25°C) at soil water matric potentials of either −75 kPa or −5 kPa and for either 4 or 90 days. Pore-size distribution was determined for each soil column after incubation and soils were then analysed for soluble C, label-derived residual C, label-derived and native biomass C, nematode abundance, and ergosterol concentration as an indicator of fungal biomass. Overall, the data suggested that pore-size distribution and its interaction with soil water give rise to a highly stratified biogeography of organisms through the pore system. This results in different rates of decomposition in pores of different size. Added plant material seemed to decompose most rapidly in soils with a relatively large volume of pores with neck diameters c. 15–60 µm and most slowly in soils with large volumes of pores with neck diameters 〈 4 µm. Regression analysis suggested that at matric potentials of both −75 kPa and −5 kPa the fastest decomposition of organic substrate occurred close to the gas–water interface. This analysis also implied that slower rates of decomposition occur in the pore class 60–300 µm. Correlations between the mass of soil biota and the pore volume of each pore class point to the importance of fungi and possibly nematodes in the rapid decomposition of C in the pores c. 15–60 µm during the early stages of decomposition.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. In the Rhine-Delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. Here, soil and cattle milk samples were taken from three floodplains and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin equivalents, total PCDD and PCDF residues in milk did not exceed the quality standard of 0.006 μg/kg fat weight. This was still the case if non- and mono-ortho PCBs were added to the total. Yet, the floodplains investigated were only moderately polluted according to previous studies and one cannot exclude higher levels in milk from other floodplains. Bioconcentration ratios of milk fat vs soil organic matter were about 0.01 to 0.1 for persistent PCBs. These values are in accordance with a few literature data found for other persistent compounds. Yet, ratios are lower than expected from equilibrium partitioning. Ratios for PCDDs and PCDFs were even lower, possibly due to biotransformation.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the Rhine-Delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. Here, soil and cattle milk samples were taken from three floodplains and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin equivalents, total PCDD and PCDF residues in milk did not exceed the quality standard of 0.006 μg/kg fat weight. This was still the case if non- and mono-ortho PCBs were added to the total. Yet, the floodplains investigated were only moderately polluted according to previous studies and one cannot exclude higher levels in milk from other floodplains. Bioconcentration ratios of milk fat vs soil organic matter were about 0.01 to 0.1 for persistent PCBs. These values are in accordance with a few literature data found for other persistent compounds. Yet, ratios are lower than expected from equilibrium partitioning. Ratios for PCDDs and PCDFs were even lower, possibly due to biotransformation.
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