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  • 1
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: yeast ; Candida utilis ; alcoholic fermentation ; Kluyver effect ; oxygen limitation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The facultatively fermentative yeast Candida utilis exhibits the Kluyver effect for maltose: this disaccharide is respired and assimilated but, in contrast to glucose, it cannot be fermented. To study the mechanism of the Kluyver effect, metabolic responses of C. utilis to a transition from aerobic, sugar-limited growth to oxygen-limited conditions were studied in chemostat cultures. Unexpectedly, the initial response of maltose-grown cultures to oxygen limitation was very similar to that of glucose-grown cultures. In both cases, alcoholic fermentation occurred after a lag phase of 1 h, during which glycerol, pyruvate and D-lactate were the main fermentation products. After ca. 10 h the behaviour of the maltose- and glucose-grown cultures diverged: ethanol disappeared from the maltose-grown cultures, whereas fermentation continued in steady-state, oxygen-limited cultures grown on glucose. The disappearance of alcoholic fermentation in oxygen-limited chemostat cultures growing on maltose was not due to a repression of the synthesis of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The results demonstrate that the Kluyver effect for maltose in C. utilis does not reflect an intrinsic inability of this yeast to ferment maltose, but is caused by a regulatory phenomenon that affects a key enzyme in maltose metabolism, probably the maltose carrier. The observed kinetics indicate that this regulation occurs at the level of enzyme synthesis rather than via modification of existing enzyme activity.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: alcoholic fermentation ; chemostat culture ; Crabtree effect ; respiration ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; yeasts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An overview is presented of the steady- and transient state kinetics of growth and formation of metabolic byproducts in yeasts.Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strongly inclined to perform alcoholic fermentation. Even under fully aerobic conditions, ethanol is produced by this yeast when sugars are present in excess. This so-called ‘Crabtree effect’ probably results from a multiplicity of factors, including the mode of sugar transport and the regulation of enzyme activities involved in respiration and alcoholic fermentation. The Crabtree effect inS. cerevisiae is not caused by an intrinsic inability to adjust its respiratory activity to high glycolytic fluxes. Under certain cultivation conditions, for example during growth in the presence of weak organic acids, very high respiration rates can be achieved by this yeast.S. cerevisiae is an exceptional yeast since, in contrast to most other species that are able to perform alcoholic fermentation, it can grow under strictly anaerobic conditions. ‘Non-Saccharomyces’ yeasts require a growth-limiting supply of oxygen (i.e. oxygen-limited growth conditions) to trigger alcoholic fermentation. However, complete absence of oxygen results in cessation of growth and therefore, ultimately, of alcoholic fermentation. Since it is very difficult to reproducibly achieve the right oxygen dosage in large-scale fermentations, non-Saccharomyces yeasts are therefore not suitable for large-scale alcoholic fermentation of sugar-containing waste streams. In these yeasts, alcoholic fermentation is also dependent on the type of sugar. For example, the facultatively fermentative yeastCandida utilis does not ferment maltose, not even under oxygen-limited growth conditions, although this disaccharide supports rapid oxidative growth.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: Arthrobacter P1 ; choline ; formaldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+-dependent) (EC 1.2.1.-) ; methylamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract WhenArthrobacter P1 is grown on choline, betaine, dimethylglycine or sarcosine, an NAD+-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase is induced. This formaldehyde dehydrogenase has been purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation, anion exchange- and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The molecular mass of the native enzyme was 115 kDa±10 kDa. Gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that the molecular mass of the subunit was 56 kDa±3 kDa, which is consistent with a dimeric enzyme structure. After ammonium sulphate fractionation the partially purified enzyme required the addition of a reducing reagent in the assay mixture for maximum activity. The enzyme was highly specific for its substrates and the Km values were 0.10 and 0.80 mM for formaldehyde and NAD+, respectively. The enzyme was heat-stable at 50° C for at least 10 min and showed a broad pH optimum of 8.1 to 8.5. The addition of some metal-binding compounds and thiol reagents inhibited the enzyme activity.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Kluyveromyces ; Candida utilis ; Kluyver effect ; chemostat ; biomass ; whey ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Many facultatively fermentative yeast species exhibit a “Kluyver effect”: even under oxygen-limited growth conditions, certain disaccharides that support aerobic, respiratory growth are not fermented, even though the component monosaccharides are good fermentation substrates. This article investigates the applicability of this phenomenon for high-cell-density cultivation of yeasts. In glucose-grown batch cultures of Candida utilis CBS 621, the onset of oxygen limitation led to alcoholic fermentation and, consequently, a decrease of the biomass yield on sugar. In maltose-grown cultures, alcoholic fermentation did not occur and oxygen-limited growth resulted in high biomass concentrations (90 g dry weight L-1 from 200 g L-1 maltose monohydrate in a simple batch fermentation). It was subsequently investigated whether this principle could also be applied to Kluyveromyces species exhibiting a Kluyver effect for lactose. In oxygen-limited, glucose-grown chemostat cultures of K. wickerhamii CBS 2745, high ethanol concentrations and low biomass yields were observed. Conversely, ethanol was absent and biomass yields on sugar were high in oxygen-limited chemostat cultures grown on lactose. Batch cultures of K. wickerhamii grown on lactose exhibited the same growth characteristics as the maltose-grown C. utilis cultures: absence of ethanol formation and high biomass yields. Within the species K. marxianus, the occurrence of a Kluyver effect for lactose is known to be strain dependent. Thus, K. marxianus CBS 7894 could be grown to high biomass densities in lactose-grown batch cultures, whereas strain CBS 5795 produced ethanol after the onset of oxygen limitation and, consequently, yielded low amounts of biomass. Because the use of yeast strains exhibiting a Kluyver effect obviates the need for controlled substrate-feeding strategies to avoid oxygen limitation, such strains should be excellently suited for the production of biomass and growth-related products from low-cost disaccharide-containing feedstocks. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2010-08-01
    Print ISSN: 0961-9534
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2909
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Published by Elsevier
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