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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 47 (1988), S. 291-300 
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 73.30.+y ; 73.40.Lq
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract This paper proposes and examines three different plots for the determination of the saturation current, the ideality factor, and the series resistance of Schottky diodes and solar cells from the measurement of a single current (I)/voltage(V) curve. All three plots utilize the small signal conductance and avoid the traditional Norde plot completely. A test reveals that the series resistance and the barrier height of a test diode can be determined with an accuracy of better than 1%. Finally it is shown that a numerical agreement between measured and fittedI/V curves is generally insufficient to prove the physical validity of current transport models.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 53 (1991), S. A7 
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 76 (1994), S. 4168-4172 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The effective minority carrier lifetime in semiconductors with recombination inhomogeneities depends on the spatial distribution of recombination sites and not only on their absolute number. We use time-resolved microwave reflection measurements to monitor the carrier recombination in silicon wafers with a periodic metallization pattern on one surface. This contact scheme simulates the distribution of sites of enhanced carrier recombination. The experiments reveal a sensitive dependence of the effective minority carrier lifetime on the interdistance and the size—i.e., the scaling—of the metallization pattern at fixed metallization area ratio. This so-called scaling effect occurs whenever the size and the interdistance of recombination sites are comparable to the minority carrier diffusion length. Our experiments are in good agreement with results from a new analytical three-dimensional simulation which is based on the solution of the electronic transport equations in Fourier space. Our model is applicable to the optimization of the backside ohmic contact pattern for high efficiency solar cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 75 (1994), S. 994-997 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Au/Sb films annealed at temperatures as low as 370 °C yield ohmic contacts to n-type Si. The contact formation is based on a liquid-phase epitaxy process of Sb-doped Si from Au solution. Measured contact resistivities range around 3×10−2 Ω cm2 and are at least one order of magnitude higher than what is expected from the solid solubility of Sb in Si. The discrepancy stems from local inhomogeneous etching and epitaxial regrowth of the (100)-oriented Si surface by and from the Au solution. Only a small fraction of the macroscopic contact area is doped by Sb and contributes to current transport across the Au/Si(100) interface.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 62 (1993), S. 2998-3000 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Liquid phase epitaxy provides a new impetus for thin film photovoltaics based on silicon; we apply this method for about 20-μm-thick solar cells with high efficiencies. The analysis of internal quantum efficiency measurements reveals that the open circuit voltages around 660 mV arise from an excellent electronic quality of our thin silicon films. Their effective minority carrier diffusion lengths range up to 317 μm, a value that exceeds the thickness of the layers by an order of magnitude. The conversion efficiencies exceed 14% with a record value of 14.7% for a 16.8-μm-thick epitaxial layer without special antireflecting coatings. The high open circuit voltages promise a possible boost of the efficiency toward 20% by applying light trapping schemes to optimize the short circuit current.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 70 (1997), S. 390-392 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We fabricate thin crystalline silicon solar cells with a minority carrier diffusion length of 0.6±0.2 μm by direct high-temperature chemical vapor deposition on glass substrates. This small diffusion length does not allow high cell efficiencies with conventional cell designs. We propose a new cell design that utilizes submicron thin silicon layers to compensate for low minority carrier diffusion lengths. According to theoretical modeling, our design exhibits excellent light trapping properties and allows for 10% efficiency at an optimum cell thickness of 0.4 μm only. This submicron range of cell thicknesses was formerly thought to require direct band gap semiconductors. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 67 (1995), S. 1028-1030 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Charge multiplication by hot carriers in semiconductors opens a new perspective for improved photovoltaic energy conversion. Here, we estimate the theoretical limit for the efficiency of solar cells that make use of the best possible carrier multiplication and have the lowest possible recombination loss, i.e., radiative recombination only. For a terrestrial cell under 100 mW/cm2 air mass 1.5 global illumination, the uppermost efficiency amounts to 44.2%. Cells with internal carrier multiplication require a modified description of their saturation current density. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 54 (1989), S. 1528-1530 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We investigate several silicide/silicon Schottky barrier heights under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar. The barriers of polycrystalline TiSi2, PtSi, and WTi on n-type Si decrease with −1.l3, −1.35, and −1.42 meV/kbar, respectively. The coefficients for A- and B-type NiSi2/Si amount to −0.77 and −0.89 meV/kbar and are too small to support models which ascribe the l40 meV barrier difference of these two types to different interface bond lengths. The pressure coefficients are, on the other hand, within a range of predictions of Cardona and Christensen which are based on pure bulk properties.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 73 (1993), S. 1315-1319 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We investigate the temperature dependence of Schottky barrier heights on silicon. The analysis of a large variety of polycrystalline diodes shows that the temperature coefficient of the barrier height depends on the chemical nature of the metal. This observation is in contradiction with models suggesting Fermi-level pinning at the center of the semiconductor's indirect band gap. From the analysis of epitaxial NiSi2/Si Schottky contacts, we conclude that there is a direct influence of interface crystallography on both the barrier height and its temperature dependence. Finally, we present some new results on the pressure coefficient of barrier heights. Pressure and temperature coefficients of polycrystalline Schottky contacts are correlated similarly to the pressure and temperature coefficients of the band gap.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 70 (1991), S. 1087-1088 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Recently, Wu, Yang, and Evans [J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2845 (1990)] ascribed excess negative and positive capacitances at abrupt Schottky diodes to interface charges and a "waterfall'' of electrons "falling off the Schottky barrier cliff.'' This comment points out that such strange admittances are not related to interface charge at the front Schottky contact but to defective back contacts, as previously demonstrated [Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 53 (1988) and Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 91, 433 (1987)].
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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