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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Branch cross-sectional area ; Leaf area ; Leaf biomass ; Picea abies ; Sapwood area
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The relationship of leaf biomass and leaf area to the conductive area of stems and branches was investigated in Picea abies. A total of 30 trees were harvested to determine if these relationships were different in different crown zones and in trees growing with and without competition for light. Two methods were compared. In the first, data were accumulated from crown zones situated at the top of trees to the bottom; in the second, data were used from individual crown zones. The results indicated that the latter method is much more sensitive in detecting differences in the relationship of leaf biomass or leaf area to conductive area. The analysis also indicated that ratios such as leaf area/sapwood area are frequently size-dependent. This size-dependency can in some cases result in the differences being abscured, but more often leads to the false impression that the relationship between the variables changes. The relationship between leaf biomass and leaf area and conductive area of stems or branches was different in different crown zones and under different growth conditions. The slopes of these regressions appear to increase with decreasing transpirational demand and decrease with increasing hydraulic conductivity. The intercepts are probably related to the amount of identified sapwood actually involved in water conductance.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 7 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Leaf shapes and leaf orientation of Lactuca serriola serriola and serriola integrifolia were studied. Leaf shapes in L. serriola serriola differed greatly from those of L.serriola integrifolia, but leaf surface areas were similar. In exposed habitats, leaf orientation of cauline leaves of both forms was non-random, with leaves almost vertical and tending to orient with their lamina normal to the east and west. In the shade, cauline leaves oriented randomly. An experiment demonstrated that the orientation of leaves did not change significantly once they were fully expanded. The leaf orientation in L. serriola affected the diurnal distribution of solar irradiance intercepted by a leaf. Peak solar radiation fluxes are incident on the rosette leaves at midday, but on the cauline leaves the peak solar radiation flux occurs early in the morning and again late in the afternoon. The significance of this unusual leaf orientation is discussed in relation to water loss and carbon gain.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 8 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Gas exchange responses of intact leaves of Lactuca serriola serriola and L. serriola integrifolia were examined. The light, temperature and intercellular CO2 dependence of photosynthesis of these two forms of L. serriola were indistinguishable. Dependence of photosynthesis on leaf temperature differed only slightly between plants grown at approximately 10/3°C and those grown at 33/25°C with the thermal optimum shifting 4°C. Transpiration was shown to increase exponentially with leaf temperature. The gas exchange characteristics of L. serriola are discussed in relation to water relations, carbon gain and compass leaf orientation under field conditions.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 9 (1986), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Field water relations of Lactuca serriola serriola and L. serriola integrifolia were examined. Leaf conductance to water vapour was high early in the morning and declined rapidly during the midday hours. Leaf water potentials decreased to their minima early in the morning and remained low all day. Afternoon recovery of leaf conductance occurred occasionally. Leaf conductance was shown to have a linear response to vapour concentration difference. No differences were seen between L. serriola serriola and L. serriola integrifolia. The pattern of diurnal gas-exchange activity appeared to be complemented by the pattern of intercepted solar irradiance which results from the compass plant leaf orientation observed in L. serriola.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Forest decline ; Carbohydrates ; Picea abies ; Growth ; Leaf area index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary This is the first in a series of papers on the growth, photosynthetic rate, water and nutrient relations, root distribution and mycorrhizal frequency of two Norway spruce forests at different stages of decline. One of the stands was composed of green trees only while the other included trees ranging in appearance from full green crowns to thin crowns with yellow needles. In this paper we compare the growth and carbohydrate relations of the two stands and examine relationships among growth variables in ten plots. The declining stand produced 65 percent of the wood per ground area compared with the stand in which all trees were green because its foliage produced less wood at any level of leaf area index. The difference in foliage efficiency between the sites could not be explained by differeneces in climate, competition or stand structure. The declining stand appeared to have lower carbon gain as indicated by a smaller increase in reserve carbohydrates before bud break, and weaker sinks for carbohydrates as indicated by less use of the stored carbohydrates than the healthy stand. Thus, growth reduction was probably related to factors which affect both photosynthesis and, even more, the sinks for carbohydrate.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Forest decline ; Spruce ; Nutrients ; Xylem sap
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The nutrient relations (nitrogen, magnesium, calcium, potassium, and manganese) of the xylem sap of spruce trees, Picea abies (L.) Karst., growing at a healthy and a declining site in Northern Bavaria, were followed on a diurnal and seasonal basis between April and October 1985. There were significant differences between the two sites in the xylem sap concentrations of all elements investigated except nitrogen. Nutrient concentrations remained constant diurnally despite changes in transpiration and xylem water potential. However, during periods between precipitation events, concentrations of elements in xylem sap decreased with decreasing xylem water potential. Apparent differences in needle chlorosis of spruce trees at the two sites were associated with consistent differences in nutrient contents of their xylem sap and needles.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Photosynthesis in Sonoran Desert winter annuals appeared to be similar to those observed in other C3 photosynthetic pathway herbs, although photosynthetic capacities ranged from 18 to 65 μmol CO1 m-2 s-1 under natural conditions. The higher photosynthetic capacities were associated with high leaf conductances to water vapor (up to 39 mm s-1). Leaf Kjeldahl nitrogen contents were high, ranging up to 44.9 mg g-1. We suggest that the high photosynthetic capacities in several species may be related to resource availability and enable successful exploitation of the short, unpredictable growth periods experienced by these annuals. Although photosynthetic rates in desert winter annuals spanned a wide range, the relationship between leaf conductance and maximum photosynthesis appeared simiar to that of other C3 vascular plants. It is possible that the resulting constant intercellular, CO2 concentrations were related to minimizing excessive water loss, while not severely imposing limitations to photosynthetic gains.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Picea abies ; Forest decline ; Stomatal response ; Photosynthesis ; Mg-deficiency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary CO2 assimilation rate (A) and leaf conductance (g) were measured in the field on intact branches of 35-year-old Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees, in five plots each in a healthy and a declining stand. The declining site included trees with yellow needles. In order to separate atmospheric effects on gas exchange from effects of nutrient deficiency, direct effects of atmospheric pollutants were studied on green needles of different age classes in plots of trees at different stages of visible decline. The effects of nutrient deficiency on gas exchange were studied on a different group of trees showing needles of various degrees of yellowing. CO2 assimilation of green needles at the same leaf conductance fell somewhat only when needles had reached 5 years of age, the oldest age examined in this study. Leaf conductance decreased with increasing needle age, but green needles in the declining stand had leaf conductances similar to those of needles in the healthy stand. Stomata of needles with different magnesium concentrations responded to light and air humidity in all age classes. Thus, as long as needles were green, no dese effect was detectable up to 5 years of exposure to atmospheric emissions. Since all needles, green and yellow, were exposed to the same pollution levels, differences in gas exchange between green and yellow needles could not be explained simply in terms of long-term direct effects of air pollution. Needle magnesium contents were correlated with needle yellowing. Neither needle color change nor the magnesium concentration were related to g, but CO2 uptake at ambient CO2 levels declined with lower magnesium concentration and greater degrees of needle yellowing.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Forest decline, Spruce (Picea abies) ; Nitrogen ; Magnesium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A declining Picea abies (L.) Karst. stand produced as much foliage and branches as a healthy stand but less stemwood at a similar leaf area index and climate. Nutrient analyses revealed that most biomass components at the declining site had lower concentrations of calcium and magnesium, but similar nitrogen and potassium (except for lower potassium in younger needles) and higher phosphorus, manganese and aluminum than the respective components at the healthy site. Comparison of these data with the results from studies on the nutrition and growth of P. abies seedlings (Ingestad 1959) led to the conclusion that the healthy stand is in a balanced nutritional state, while trees at the declining stand have only 56% of the foliar magnesium concentration required to permit growth at a rate which could be achieved at their nitrogen status. It appears that acidic deposition, which involves an input of nitrogen and a leaching of cations from the soil, causes an imbalance in the availability of nitrogen and magnesium. Growth is eventually reduced as magnesium becomes limiting.
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