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  • 1
    ISSN: 0304-8853
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0304-8853
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The ESR of the spin glassAgMn (2.7 and 9.6 at %) has been investigated below and aboveT g(0.1T g〈T〈5T g) at various microwave frequencies. The analysis yields:1) No explicit frequency dependence but strong magnetic field effects, inherent with ESR-experiments.2) Part of the excess line width is identified as critical spin fluctuations, following a power law. However, because of the presence of the applied field, the reduced temperaturet is not a good scaling variable. We choose the non-linear susceptibility X s divided byH 2, which scales as the order parameter susceptibility. The experiment yieldsW ex∞(X s /H 2) p ,p=0.42. From this we deduce νz≈3.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 57 (1985), S. 3230-3231 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We present magnetization and resistivity measurements on single crystals of yttrium doped with small concentrations of gadolinium (c=1, 2, and 3 at. %). The low-field susceptibility exhibits a spin-glass-like sharp cusp for the magnetic field along the c axis. However, there is no irreversible behavior below the temperature of the cusp, which rules out the existence of a spin-glass state. Moreover, our magnetization measurements show up a spin-flop transition for H in the basal plane. The existence of a long-range ordering is confirmed by our resistivity measurements. The resistivity parallel to the c axis exhibits a maximum just below the ordering temperature, which is reminiscent of the superzone effects observed in many rare-earth metals. The antiferro- magneticlike properties of the YGd alloys contrast with the spin-glass behavior observed in other Y–rare-earth alloys at similar concentrations.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Seasonal patterns of N translocation in the xylem sap of Betula pendula were studied, to determine whether specific amino acids were recovered in spring as a consequence of N remobilization. Seedlings were grown in sand culture and provided with 15NH415NO3 (at 2·2 atom percent excess) for one growing season. The following winter dormant trees were transplanted into fresh sand and given N at natural abundance thereafter. Destructive harvests were taken during bud burst and leaf growth to determine the pattern of 15N remobilization and N uptake, along with isolation of xylem sap for analysis of their amino acid profiles and 15N enrichment by GC-MS. 15N remobilization occurred immediately following bud burst, while N derived from root uptake did not appear in the leaves until 12 d after bud burst. During N remobilization there was a 10-fold increase in the concentration of N in the xylem sap, due predominantly to increases in citrulline and glutamine. The 15N enrichment of these two amino acids demonstrated the increase in their concentration in the xylem sap following bud burst was due to N remobilization. These results are discussed in relation to measuring N remobilization and storage capacity of trees in the field.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The effect of gradually-developing water-stress has been studied in Lupinus albus L., Helianthus annuus L., Vitis vinifera cv. Rosaki and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Water was withheld and diurnal rhythms were investigated 4–8d later, when the predawn water deficit was more negative than in watered plants, and the stomata closed almost completely early during the photoperiod. The contribution of ‘stomatal’ and ‘non-stomatal’ components to the decrease of photosynthetic rate was investigated by (1) comparing the changes of the rate of photosynthesis in air with the changes of stomatal conductance and (2) measuring photosynthetic capacity in saturating irradiance and 15% CO2. Three species (lupin, eucalyptus and sunflower) showed larger changes of stomatal conductance than photosynthesis in air, and showed little or no decrease of photosynthetic capacity in saturating CO2. Photosynthesis in air also recovered fully overnight after watering the plants in the evening. In grapevines, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis in air changed in parallel, there was a marked decrease of photosynthetic capacity, and photosynthesis and stomatal conductance did not recover overnight after watering water-stressed plants. Relative water content remained above 90% in grapevine. We conclude that non-stomatal components do not play a significant role in lupins, sunflower or eucalyptus, but could in grapevine. The effect of water-stress on partitioning of photosynthate was investigated by measuring the amounts of sucrose and starch in leaves during a diurnal rhythm, and by measuring the partitioning of 14C-carbon dioxide between sucrose and starch. In all four species, starch was depleted in water-stressed leaves but sucrose was maintained at amounts similar to, or higher than, those in watered plants. Partitioning into sucrose was increased in lupins and eucalyptus, and remained unchanged in grapevine and sunflower. It is concluded that water-stressed leaves in all four species maintain high levels of soluble sugars in their leaves, despite having lower rates of field photosynthesis, decreased rates of export, and low amounts of starch in their leaves.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Comprehensive studies on the processes involved in photosynthetic acclimation after a sudden change in light regime are scarce, particularly for trees. We tested (i) the ability of photosynthetic acclimation in the foliage of walnut trees growing outdoors after low-to-high and high-to-low light transfers made early or late in the vegetation cycle, and (ii) the relative importance of changes in total leaf nitrogen versus changes in the partitioning of leaf nitrogen between the different photosynthetic functions during a 2 month period after transfer. Changes in maximum carboxylation rate, light-saturated electron transport rate, respiration rate, total leaf nitrogen, ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and total chlorophylls were surveyed before and after the change in light regime. Respiration rate acclimated fully within 1 week of transfer, and full acclimation was observed 1 month after transfer for the amount of Rubisco. In contrast, total nitrogen and photosynthetic capacity acclimated only partially during the 2 month period. Changes in photosynthetic capacity were driven by changes in both total leaf nitrogen and leaf nitrogen partitioning. The extent of acclimation also depended strongly on leaf age at the time of the change in light regime.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Prunus avium trees were grown in sand culture for one vegetative season with contrasting N supplies, in order to precondition their N storage capacities. During the spring of the second year a constant amount of 15N was supplied to all the trees, and the recovery of unlabelled N in the new biomass production was used as a direct measure of N remobilization. Destructive harvests were taken during spring to determine the pattern of N remobilization and uptake. Measurements of both xylem sap amino acid profiles and whole tree transpiration rates were taken, to determine whether specific amino acids are translocated as a consequence of N remobilization and if remobilization can be quantified by calculating the flux of these amino acids in the xylem. Whereas remobilization started immediately after bud burst, N derived from uptake by root appeared in the leaves only 3 weeks later. The tree internal N status affected both the amount of N remobilization and its dynamics. The concentration of xylem sap amino acids peaked shortly after bud burst, concurrently with the period of fastest remobilization. Few amino acids and amides (Gln, Asn and Asp) were responsible for most of N translocated through the xylem; however, their relative concentration varied over spring, demonstrating that the transport of remobilized N occurred mainly with Gln whereas transport of N taken up from roots occurred mainly with Asn. Coupling measurements of amino acid N in the xylem sap with transpiration values was well correlated with the recovery of unlabelled N in the new biomass production. These results are discussed in relation to the possibility of measuring the spring remobilization of N in field-grown trees by calculating the flux of N translocation in the xylem.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Nicotiana (photosynthesis) ; Nitrogen ; Photosynthesis (control analysis) ; Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ; Transgenic plant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of nitrogen supply during growth on the contribution of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) to the control of photosynthesis was examined in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Transgenic plants transformed with antisense rbcS to produce a series of plants with a progressive decrease in the amount of Rubisco were used to allow the calculation of the flux-control coefficient of Rubisco for photosynthesis (CR). Several points emerged from the data: (i) The strength of Rubisco control of photosynthesis, as measured by CR, was altered by changes in the short-term environmental conditions. Generally, CR was increased in conditions of increased irradiance or decreased CO2. (ii) The amount of Rubisco in wild-type plants was reduced as the nitrogen supply during growth was reduced and this was associated with an increase in CR. This implied that there was a specific reduction in the amount of Rubisco compared with other components of the photosynthetic machinery. (iii) Plants grown with low nitrogen and which had genetically reduced levels of Rubisco had a higher chlorophyll content and a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio than wild-type plants. This indicated that the nitrogen made available by genetically reducing the amount of Rubisco had been re-allocated to other cellular components including light-harvesting and electron-transport proteins. It is argued that there is a “luxury” additional investment of nitrogen into Rubisco in tobacco plants grown in high nitrogen, and that Rubisco can also be considered a nitrogen-store, all be it one where the opportunity cost of the nitrogen storage is higher than in a non-functional storage protein (i.e. it allows for a slightly higher water-use efficiency and for photosynthesis to respond to temporarily high irradiance).
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Communications 48 (1983), S. 91-94 
    ISSN: 0038-1098
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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