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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-12-22
    Description: Volcanic eruptions contribute to climate variability, but quantifying these contributions has been limited by inconsistencies in the timing of atmospheric volcanic aerosol loading determined from ice cores and subsequent cooling from climate proxies such as tree rings. Here we resolve these inconsistencies and show that large eruptions in the tropics and high latitudes were primary drivers of interannual-to-decadal temperature variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the past 2,500 years. Our results are based on new records of atmospheric aerosol loading developed from high-resolution, multi-parameter measurements from an array of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores as well as distinctive age markers to constrain chronologies. Overall, cooling was proportional to the magnitude of volcanic forcing and persisted for up to ten years after some of the largest eruptive episodes. Our revised timescale more firmly implicates volcanic eruptions as catalysts in the major sixth-century pandemics, famines, and socioeconomic disruptions in Eurasia and Mesoamerica while allowing multi-millennium quantification of climate response to volcanic forcing.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: A total of 8,000 sq cm of Mo-coated Pt foils were exposed to solar wind for 884 days by the Genesis mission. Solar wind ions were captured in the surface of the Mo. Our objective is the measurement of long-lived radionuclides, such as Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, and Mn-53, and short-lived radionuclides, such as Na-22 and Mn-54, in the captured sample of solar wind. The expected flux of these nuclides in the solar wind is 100 atom/sq cm yr or less. The hard landing of the SRC (Sample Return Capsule) at UTTR (Utah Test and Training Range) has resulted in contaminated and crumpled foils. Here we present a status report and revised plan for processing the foils.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 14; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-14
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: Since the discovery of the Gold Basin L4 chondrite shower almost ten years ago in the northwestern corner of Arizona, many thousands of L-chondrite specimens have been recovered from an area of approx.22 km long and approx.10 km wide. Concentrations of cosmogenic 14C and 10Be in a number of these samples indicated a terrestrial age of approx.15,000 years and a large pre-atmospheric size [1]. Additional measurements of cosmogenic Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, and Ca-41 in the metal and stone fractions of fifteen Gold Basin samples constrained the pre-atmospheric radius to 3-5 m [2]. This implies that Gold Basin is by far the largest stone meteorite in the present meteorite collection, providing us with an opportunity to study the fragmentation process of a large chondritic object during atmospheric entry. Knowledge about the fragmentation process provides information about the mechanical strength of large meteoroids, which is important for the evaluation of future hazards of small asteroid impacts on Earth and possible defensive scenarios to avoid those impacts.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 21; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-21
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: In the last decade thousands of meteorites have been recovered from hot deserts in the Sahara and Oman. One of the main meteorite concentration surfaces in the Sahara is the Dar al Gani plateau in Libya, which covers a total area of ~8000 km2. More than 1000 meteorites have been reported from this area. The geological setting, meteorite pairings and the meteorite density of the Dar al Gani (DaG) field are described in more detail in [1]. In this work we report concentrations of the noble gas isotopes of He, Ne, Ar as well as 84Kr and 132Xe in 18 DaG meteorites. In a separate paper we will report the cosmogenic radionuclides [2]. We discuss the thermal history and cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) history of these meteorites, and evaluate the effects of the hot desert environment on the noble gas record.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV; LPI-Contrib-1156
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Terrestial ages are presented for 70 Antarctic meteorites, based on cosmogenic Be-10, Al-26 and Cl-36 in the metal phase. Also, results of leaching experiments are discussed to study possible contamination of stony meteorites with atmospheric Be-10
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI; LPI-Contrib-1000
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The Chinguetti mesosiderite was found in the Adrar region of Mauretania in 1916. The finder claimed it be only a small fragment of a much larger mass, on the order of 10's of meters across. Our data indicate that, in fact, the pre-atmospheric size of the meteorite was 〈 1m.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI; LPI-Contrib-1000
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Terrestrial ages of meteorites from hot deserts provide an important tool to estimate meteorite fluxes to the Earth. Most desert meteorites have terrestrial ages less than 40 ky, but a few achondrites from the Sahara region were recently shown to have significantly higher ages, up to approx.100 ky. In general, C-14 (half-life = 5730 y) is the most suited radionuclide to determine terrestrial ages for desert meteorites. However for meteorites with ages 〉35 ky, the concentration of cosmogenic C-14 has decreased to a level at which it becomes difficult to distinguish between cosmogenic C-14 and terrestrial contamination. These meteorites may therefore be much older than 35 ky. We selected chondrites with low C-14 activities (less than or equal to 2 dpm/kg) for measurements of the concentrations of cosmogenic Cl-36 (half-life= 3.01 x 10(exp 5) y) and Ca-41 (half-life= 1.04 x 10(exp 5) y) in the metal phase. Since the ratio of Ca-41/Cl-36 in the metal phase of chondrites is relatively constant and well known, the measured ratio is a direct measure of the terrestrial age]. A major problem is that most or sometimes all. of the metal in these old "hot desert" meteorites has been oxidized to hydrated Fe-Ni-oxides. Therefore, we also measured the concentrations of Be-10, Al-26 and Cl-36 in the stony phase in order to constrain the terrestrial age as much as possible.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: Workshop on Extraterrestrial Materials from Cold and Hot Deserts; 88-89; LPI-Contrib-997
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: One of the factors that determines the survival time of meteorites on the Earth's surface is the rate of weathering. For meteorites from hot deserts, a clear correlation is found between the degree of weathering and the terrestrial age, but for Antarctic meteorites this correlation is weak or even lacking. The lack of a clear correlation can partly be attributed to the two-stage history of many Antarctic meteorites, which spend part of their terrestrial residence time in the ice before they are exposed on the ice. Recently, it was found that for Lewis Cliff (LEW) meteorites local conditions on the ice play an important role in the weathering process. This work focuses on weathering effects in ordinary chondrites from Frontier Mountain (FRO), North Victoria Land. Although most FRO meteorites were classified as weathering category A or B, many are contaminated with terrestrial uranium, deposited from meltwater. This suggests that weathering plays a more significant role than the qualitative A-B-C weathering index indicates. We therefore determined the degree of weathering more quantitatively, by deriving the amount of oxidized metal from the concentrations of Fe and Ni in the nonmagnetic fraction of 23 H-chondrites and 1 L-chondrite. The results will be compared with those of LEW meteorites and will be discussed in terms of terrestrial age and location of find on the ice.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: Workshop on Extraterrestrial Materials from Cold and Hot Deserts; 83-87; LPI-Contrib-997
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: In the past decade more than 1000 meteorites have been recovered from the Dar al Gani (DaG) plateau in the Libyan part of the Sahara. The geological setting, meteorite pairings and density are described. So far, only a few terrestrial ages are known for DaG meteorites, e.g. 60+/- 20 kyr for the DaG 476 shergottite shower and 80+/- 20 kyr for the lunar meteorite DaG 262. However, from other desert areas, such as Oman, it is known that achondrites may survive much longer than chondritic meteorites, so the ages of these two achondrites may not be representative of the majority of the DaG meteorite collection, of which more than 90% are ordinary chondrites. In this work we report concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclides, 14C (half-life = 5,730 yr), 41Ca (1.04x10 superscript 5 yr), Cl-36 (3.01x10 superscript 5 yr), Al-26 (7.05x10 superscript 5 yr) and 10Be (1.5x10 superscript 6 yr) to determine the terrestrial ages of DaG meteorites and constrain their pre-atmospheric size and exposure history.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV; LPI-Contrib-1156
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Compared to iron meteorites, large stony meteorites (less than 100 kg) are relatively rare. Most large stony meteoroids fragment during atmospheric entry, producing large meteorite showers. Interestingly, many of these large chondrites, such as Bur Gheluai, Gold Basin, Jilin and Tsarev appear to have a complex exposure history with a first-stage exposure on the parent body. The question is whether complex exposure histories are simply more readily detected in large objects or large objects are more likely to experience a complex exposure. Investigation of these two hypotheses is the motivation for this work in which we report on the exposure history of QUE 90201, a large L/LL5 chondrite shower found near Queen Alexandra Range, Antarctica. Previous cosmogenic nuclide studies have led to the consensus that most of the approx. 2000 L5 and LL5 chondrites from the QUE area are derived from a single object with a pre-atmospheric radius of 1-2 m. The terrestrial age of the QUE 90201 shower was determined at 125 20 kyr. Here, we present a more complete set of cosmogenic radionuclide results in the metal and stone fractions of eleven L/LL5 chondrites from the QUE stranding area, as well as noble gases in seven of these samples. The main goal of this work is to unravel the cosmic-ray exposure history of the QUE 90201 meteoroid. In addition, we will discuss the pre-atmospheric size and exposure history of QUE 93013 (H5) and 93081 (H4) with similar shielding conditions as the QUE 90201 shower and a terrestrial age of 145 +/- 25 kyr.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Concerning Chondrites; LPI-Contrib-1197
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