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  • 1
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: We present quasi-experimental evidence on the employment effects of an unprecedented large increase in the early retirement age (ERA). Raising the ERA has the potential to extend contribution periods and to reduce the number of pension beneficiaries at the same time, if employment exits are successfully delayed. However, workers may not be able to work longer or may choose other social support programs as exit routes from employment. We study the effects of the ERA increase on employment and potential program substitution in a regression-discontinuity framework. Germany abolished an important early retirement program for women born after 1951, effectively raising the ERA for women by three years. We analyze the effects of this huge increase on employment, unemployment, disability pensions, and inactivity rates. Our results suggest that the reform increased both employment and unemployment rates of women age 60 and over. However, we do not find evidence for active program substitution from employment into alternative social support programs. Instead employed women remained employed and unemployed women remained unemployed. The results suggest an increase in inequality within the affected cohorts.
    Keywords: J14 ; J18 ; J22 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; early retirement ; regression discontinuity ; pension reform ; unemployment ; labor supply ; disability pension
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-09-02
    Description: This paper analyzes to what extent parental leave decisions of mothers with young children depend on the decisions made by their coworkers. The identification of peer effects, which are defined as indirect effects of the behavior of a social reference group on individual outcomes, bears various challenges due to correlated characteristics within social groups and endogenous group membership. We overcome these challenges by exploiting quasi-random variation in the costs ofparental leave during a narrow window around a cutoff date, induced by a parental leave benefit reform in Germany. The reform encourages mothers to remain at home during the first year following childbirth. Administrative linked employer-employee panel data enable us to assign a peer group to all individuals who work in the same establishment and occupational group. While there is a growing literature on peer effects, few studies look at peer effects in the context ofparental leave decisions. We argue, however, that mothers with young children are particularly susceptible to peer behavior at the workplace due to preferences for conformity with peer group behavior as well as the career-related uncertainty that mothers face. Our results suggest that maternal decisions regarding the length of parental leave are significantly influenced by coworker decisions, in particular in situations with high uncertainty.
    Keywords: C31 ; J22 ; D04 ; ddc:330 ; peer effects ; social interaction ; labor supply ; family policy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Unknown
    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2016-11-15
    Description: This paper analyzes to what extent parental leave decisions of mothers with young children depend on the decisions made by their coworkers. The identification of peer effects, which are defined as indirect effects of the behavior of a social reference group on individual outcomes, bears various challenges due to correlated characteristics within social groups and endogenous group membership. We overcome these challenges by exploiting quasi-random variation in the costs of parental leave during a narrow window around a cutoff date, induced by a parental leave benefit reform in Germany. The reform encourages mothers to remain at home during the first year following childbirth. Administrative linked employer-employee panel data enable us to assign a peer group to all individuals who work in the same establishment and occupational group. While there is a growing literature on peer effects, few studies look at peer effects in the context of parental leave decisions. We argue, however, that mothers with young children are particularly susceptible to peer behavior at the workplace due to preferences for conformity with peer group behavior as well as the career-related uncertainty that mothers face. Our results suggest that maternal decisions regarding the length of parental leave are significantly influenced by coworker decisions, in particular in situations with high uncertainty.
    Keywords: C31 ; J22 ; D04 ; ddc:330 ; peer effects ; social interaction ; labor supply ; family policy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Unknown
    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-04-07
    Description: We present quasi-experimental evidence on the employment effects of an unprecedented large increase in the early retirement age (ERA). Raising the ERA has the potential to extend contribution periods and to reduce the number of pension beneficiaries at the same time, if employment exits are successfully delayed. However, workers may not be able to work longer or may choose other social support programs as exit routes from employment. We study the effects of the ERA increase on employment and potential program substitution in a regression-discontinuity framework. Germany abolished an important early retirement program for women born after 1951, effectively raising the ERA for women by three years. We analyze the effects of this huge increase on employment, unemployment, disability pensions, and inactivity rates. Our results suggest that the reform increased both employment and unemployment rates of women age 60 and over. However, we do not find evidence for active program substitution from employment into alternative social support programs. Instead employed women remained employed and unemployed women remained unemployed. The results suggest an increase in inequality within the affected cohorts.
    Keywords: J14 ; J18 ; J22 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; early retirement ; regression discontinuity ; pension reform ; unemployment ; labor supply ; disability pension
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-09-28
    Description: Das im Jahr 2007 eingeführte Elterngeld hat soziale Normen verändert. Wie dieser Bericht zeigt, gehen die meisten Frauen nach der Geburt ihres Kindes ein Jahr in Elternzeit - vor allem Mütter mit mittleren und höheren Einkommen, die von den früheren Erziehungsgeldregelungen nicht hätten profitieren können, pausieren also länger von ihrem Beruf. Weitgehend gesellschaftlich akzeptiert ist, dass auch Väter Elternzeit nehmen, meist zwei Monate. Die Analysen verdeutlichen, dass nicht nur die finanziellen Anreize selbst, sondern auch das Verhalten von Arbeitskolleginnen Eltern in diese Richtung gelenkt haben. Darüber hinaus wirkt das Elterngeld auch auf Personen, die gar nicht selbst Elterngeld beziehen: So haben viele Großeltern, deren Söhne nach Einführung des Elterngeldes Kinder bekommen haben, ihre Vorstellungen von Geschlechterrollen verändert. Um eine egalitäre Aufgabenverteilung bei der Erwerbs- und Familienarbeit zu forcieren, sind Erweiterungen des Elterngeldes, beispielsweise das vom DIW Berlin untersuchte Modell einer Familienarbeitszeit, geeignet. Auch Geldleistungen, die beispielsweise an eine stärkere Beteiligung der Väter bei der Kinderbetreuung geknüpft sind, könnten soziale Normen weiter verändern.
    Keywords: J22 ; D04 ; J16 ; H31 ; D13 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave ; mothers employment interruptions ; fathers' leave taking ; social norms ; intergenerational social interaction
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-04-17
    Description: Im Jahr 1999 wurde die sogenannte 'Altersrente für Frauen' für die Jahrgänge ab 1952 abgeschafft. Dadurch erhöhte sich das frühestmögliche Renteneintrittsalter für viele Frauen schlagartig von 60 auf 63 Jahre. In der vorliegenden Studie werden anhand von Daten der deutschen Rentenversicherung und des Mikrozensus die Arbeitsmarkteffekte der Reform untersucht. Die Analysen zeigen im Durchschnitt positive Beschäftigungseffekte: Die Erwerbsquote der betroffenen Frauen steigt insgesamt um rund acht Prozentpunkte. Allerdings steigen auch Arbeitslosigkeit und Nichterwerbstätigkeit im selben Ausmaß. Der Beschäftigungseffekt geht vor allem darauf zurück, dass erwerbstätige Frauen länger arbeiten. Arbeitslose oder nichterwerbstätige Frauen wechseln durch die Erhöhung des Renteneintrittsalters kaum in Beschäftigung. Die Beschäftigungseffekte fallen für Frauen ohne hohe Bildung geringer aus. Der Wiedereingliederung von Arbeitslosen und Nichterwerbstätigen muss daher bei der künftigen Ausgestaltung der Altersgrenzen eine höhere Bedeutung zukommen. In diesem Zusammenhang sollte auch verstärkt in die Weiterbildung von älteren Menschen investiert werden.
    Keywords: J14 ; J18 ; J22 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; early retirement ; regression discontinuity ; pension reform ; unemployment ; labor supply ; disability pension
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 7
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Individuals do not exist in isolation but are embedded within networks of relationships, such as families, coworkers, neighbors, friendships or socioeconomic groups. While there is a long tradition in sociology and anthropology focusing on theimportance of social structure, norms and culture, economists have long ignored social influences on individual behavior. Even though social influences may play an important role in the evaluation of policies, economic evaluations are typicallyfocused on the central question how individuals independently respond to financial incentives. However, economic reforms or the introduction of new policy instruments are likely to affect individuals not only directly by the change in financial incentives, but also indirectly by a change in the behavior of the social environment. At the workplace, one can distinguish four contexts where peer effects may be relevant factors in explaining the observed outcomes; these are (a) job search and employment probabilities; (b) fertility, parental leave and female labor supply; (c) productivity and work place behavior; and (d) retirement and pension plan decisions. Consequently, it is of large importance to understand and predictsocial interaction effects in these four areas of research and comprehend the implications for economic policy. In the following, I will give an overview of the existing literature in each of the contexts where peer effects at work may evolve, after briefly discussing the challenges associated with the empirical analysis of peer effects.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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