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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Melbourne : Antarctic Division, Dept. of External Affairs
    Associated volumes
    Call number: AWI G7-90-0029
    In: ANARE scientific reports
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 106 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: ANARE scientific reports : Series A (IV), Glaciology 96
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-331
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS: Preface. - Introduction. - An overview of the model structure and operation. - Operation of subroutines. - TSTART. - FOMO. - REAWEA. - SEARCH. - STEMP. - TUNPIC. - Development history of the simulator. - The simulation of snow fence effects. - Urbanization and meltout. - Conclusion. - Literature cited. - Appendix A: Mathematical notation. - Appendix B: Computerprogram. - Abstract.
    Description / Table of Contents: An annual snow-soil simulator for Arctic tundra was developed using coupled models of surface equilibrium temperature and substrate thermal diffusion. Snow ripening, melt and accumulation are modeled in the simulator which is forced with daily weather data. The simulator predicts that a snow fence array capable of producing drift deeper than 4.2 meters will initiate a permanent snowfield at Barrow, Alaska. Such a man-induced snowfield could serve as a reliable source of fresh water for Barrow and similar villages in the North Slope region of Alaska. Further analysis indicated that albedo reduction due to dust fall, snow removal, etc., is dominant over aerodynamic effects in producing the early spring meltout observed at Barrow Village.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 18 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 331
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Meteorology and atmospheric physics 51 (1993), S. 141-143 
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied climatology 16 (1968), S. 262-271 
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Vegetation wird als mehrschichtiges System im Hinblick auf den Wärmeaustausch betrachtet, wobei Messungen in einem Gerstenfeld verwendet werden. Die Messungen umfaßten die Registrieuung der Wärmebilanz in verschiedenen Höhen im Getreidestand und des Wärmeflusses im Boden an typischen klaren und bedeckten Tagen. Der Tagesgang der Komponenten der Wärmebilanz durch die Vegetationsschicht wird untersucht, dabei wird die Summe des Fluesses von fühlbarer und von latenter Wärme als Restglied berechnet. Die Resultate zeigen eine vollkommene Umkehr des Flusses von fühlbarer und latenter Wärme von der Obergrenze des Getreidestandes zum Boden: während der Nacht verliert die Erdoberfläche Wärme sowohl durch turbulenten Austausch wie durch Strahlung, während des Tages nimmt sie durch beide Prozesse Wärme auf. Der gesamte Wärmeastausch zwischen dem Getreidefeld und der Atmosphäre ergibt die gewöhnlichen Wärmegewinne durch turbulenten Austausch bei Nacht und die Wärmeverluste bei Tag. Die von der Vegetationsschicht absorbierte Strahlung wird in fühlbare und latente Wärme umgesetzt, wobei 80% des gesamten Wärmeaustausches in der oberen Hälfte der Vegetationsschicht erfolgen. Die Größe des Austauschprozesses vermindert sich rasch mit der Tiefe in der Vegetationsschicht.
    Abstract: Résumé On considère ici la végétation comme un système à plusieurs strates vis à vis des échanges de chaleur. Pour cela on se sert de mesures effectuées dans un champ d'orge. Ces mesures comprenaient l'enregistrement du bilan de chaleur à différentes hauteurs dans le dit champ ainsi que du flux de chaleur dans le sol à des jours typiques: couverts ou clairs. On étudie l'évolution diurne des composantes du bilan de chaleur au travers de la couche végétale. Pour ce faire, on clacule la somme du flux des chaleurs sensible et latente comme terme final de l'équation. Les résultats montrent une inversion complète du flux de ces deux chaleurs de la surface supérieure du champ jusqu'au sol. Pendant la nuit, la surface du sol perd de la chaleur aussi bien par des échanges turbulents que par rayonnement. Pendant le jour, le sol reçoit de la chaleur par ces deux processus. L'échange total de chaleur entre le champ d'orge et l'atmosphère présente les gains de chaleur ordinaire par turbulence de nuit et les pertes de jour. Le rayonnement absorbé par la couche végétale est transformé en chaleur latente et sensible. 80% de la totalité des échanges de chaleur se passent dans la moitié supérieure de la couche végétale. L'importance des processus d'échange diminue rapidement avec la profondeur de la couche végétale.
    Notes: Summary The concept of vegetation as a multi-layered heat exchange system is discussed with reference to measurements in a barley field. These measurements included the monitoring of net radiation at various levels inside the crop and the conducted heat flux in the soil for typical clear and overcast days. The diurnal variations of the components of the heat balance throughout the crop are discussed, computing the combined flux of sensible and latent heat as a remainder term. The results show a complete reversal of the flux of sensible and latent heat from the top of the crop to the soil surface: during the night the surface loses heat by eddy diffusion as well as radiation and during the day it gains heat through both these processes. The total heat exchange between the crop and the atmosphere gives the usual heat gains by eddy diffusion during the night and losses during the day. The radiation absorbed by a layer of vegetation is converted into sensible and latent heat and 80% of the total energy exchange takes place in the upper half of the crop. The magnitude of the exchange process falls off rapidly with depth in the crop.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Für jeweils zwei arktische und antarktische Stationen, von denen jeweils eine an der Küste, eine in den Bergen liegt, wurden Vergleiche in bezug auf sommerliche Strahlungs- und Oberflächenenergiebilanz angestellt. Die Stationen liegen auf vergleichbarer Höhe und Breite. Es hat sich gezeigt, daß die Gesamt-Einstrahlung in den antarktischen Stationen größer war, aufgrund geringerer Erde-Sonnen-Distanz und der reineren Atmosphäre. Bewölkung und vor allem die für die arktischen Gebirgsstationen ausschlaggebende Sonnenabschirmung tragen auch zu dieser Differenz bei. Weiters wurden starke Albedounterschiede beobachtet. In der Arktis waren die Beobachtungsoberflächen im Sommer offene Tundra und schmelzender Schnee mit einer Albedo von 20 bzw. 59%, während die Antarktisoberflächen, nasser und trockener Schnee, eine Albedo von 67 bzw. 83% aufwiesen. Dies ergibt eine weniger positive Strahlungsbilanz für die beiden antarktischen Stationen trotz höherer Gesamteinstrahlung. Infolgedessen bewirkt die geringere Wärmeabgabe des Bodens an die Luft niedere Temperaturen in der Antarktis. Geringere Verdunstung ergibt somit geringere Bewölkung und eine trockenere Atmosphäre über der Antarktis.
    Notes: Summary For two pairs of arctic and antarctic stations, one coastal and one mountainous, an intercomparison between the summer radiation and surface energy budgets was carried out. The station pairs were similar in both latitude and altitude. It was found that the global radiation was larger for both antarctic stations. This is the result of a smaller Earth-Sun distance and cleaner atmosphere in Antarctica. Cloudiness, and for the arctic mountainous station substantial screening of the sun, also contributed. Further, large differences were found in the albedo. In the Arctic, the summer surfaces considered were bare tundra and melting snow, with respective albedos of 20 and 59%, while in Antarctica the surfaces considered were melting and dry snow, with albedos of 67 and 83% respectively. This results in a less positive radiation balance at both antarctic stations, despite the higher incoming global radiation. In turn, less sensible heat transfer from the surface to air results in lower temperatures in the Antarctic. The reduced rate of evaporation in Antarctica results in a drier atmosphere and less cloudy conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Genetic control ; Genetic sexing ; Pericentric inversions ; Lucilia cuprina
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The isolation of homozygous-viable pericentric inversions for inclusion in field-female killing (FK) systems in Lucilia cuprina is described. From 7,236 irradiated chromosomes screened, 16 pericentric inversions were isolated. Four of these were viable as homozygotes. One of these, In (3LR) 14, possesses the properties required for inclusion in FK systems (tight linkage of one inversion break-point to the white-eye gene and substantial genetic exchange within the inversion in heterozygous females).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Computational Physics 33 (1979), S. 249-258 
    ISSN: 0021-9991
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Computer Science , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-02-26
    Description: A fundamental deficiency of classical multivariate extreme value theory is the inability to distinguish between asymptotic independence and exact independence. In this work, we examine multivariate threshold modelling in the framework of regular variation on cones. Tail dependence is described by a limiting measure, which in some cases is degenerate on joint tail regions despite strong subasymptotic dependence in such regions. Hidden regular variation, a higher-order tail decay on these regions, offers a refinement of the classical theory. We develop a representation of random vectors possessing hidden regular variation as the sum of independent regular varying components. The representation is shown to be asymptotically valid via a multivariate tail equivalence result. We develop a likelihood-based estimation procedure from this representation via a Monte Carlo expectation-maximization algorithm which has been modified for tail estimation. The method is demonstrated on simulated data and applied to air pollution measurements.
    Print ISSN: 0006-3444
    Electronic ISSN: 1464-3510
    Topics: Biology , Mathematics , Medicine
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